Wysokość położenia sęków oraz lokalizacja i wielkość martwic u świerka pospolitego [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] pochodzącego z głównych ośrodków i zasięgów jego występowania w Polsce
AbstractThe present study is an attempt at verifying whether there exist differences in the height of location of knots and injuries in spruce which comes from the south-western range and spruce from the north-eastern range. The research was conducted on 32 plots located within two ranges of the occurrence of spruce in Poland: the north-eastern range and the south-western one. On the plots of 1 ha each, the following measurements were taken: the breast-height diameter and height of trees, the height of location of knots, the height and size of injuries on the stems. Analysis of the average height of location of the lowest-located knots (Fig. 1) allowed for the conclusion that the spruce trees with the lowest branching systems occurred in the Sudeten Mts while the spruce in the Carpathians revealed a higher location of this defect. Within the two spruce ranges, it was noted that the average location of knots was lower in the south-western range than in the north-eastern one (Tab. 1). An analogous situation was observed in the examination of the average relative height of location of knots (Tab. 1 and Fig. 2). The Kruskal-Wallis statistical test showed significant differences in the location of knots both between the centres and the ranges. Analysis of the location and size of overgrown and open injuries showed that in the Carpathian centre the overgrown injuries were located higher on the stem than in the centre in the Sudeten (Tab. 2 and Fig. 3). Within the ranges, a higher location of these defects characterized the spruce in the stands in the south-western range. The Kruskal-Wallis statistical test showed significant differences in the height of location of overgrown injuries between the centres and the ranges. No significant diffferences were noted, however, in the height of location of open injuries in the analysed material. The average area of overgrown injuries in all of the examined regions was similar (Tab. 2 and Fig. 4). The statistical tests showed significant differences in the sizes of overgrown injuries between the examined centres and the ranges. Considerable differences in the sizes of open injuries were noted both in the centres and in the ranges. The Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests and the post-hoc test showed significant differences in the sizes of injuries both in the centres and in the ranges. According to the present research results, the shortest butt-end zone with no knots characterised the spruce from the centre in Sudeten while the longest one was found in the spruce from the Carpathian centre. Within the ranges, the average height of occurrence of the lowest-located knots was found to be similar in both ranges of spruce in Poland; however, the revealed differences in the height of location of this defect are statistically significant. The average height of occurrence of the lowest-located overgrown injuries in all groups of data showed statistically significant differences whereas open injuries did not differ significantly. Both the overgrown injuries and the open ones were characterized by large areas and their average sizes differed significantly depending on the examined group of material.
|Other language title versions||The height of location of knots and the size of injuries in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] from the main centres and ranges of its occurrence in Poland|
|Journal series||Acta Agraria et Silvestria series Silvestris, ISSN 0065-0927, (B 1 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||1.8|
|Keywords in Polish||świerk, wady drewna, sęki, martwice, jakość surowca, Picea abies (L.) Karst.|
|Keywords in English||spruce, wood defects, knots, injuries, timber quality, Picea abies (L.) Karst.|
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