The contents of the potentially harmful elements in the arable soils of southern Poland, with the assessment of ecological and health risks: a case study

Agnieszka Gruszecka-Kosowska , Agnieszka Baran , Magdalena Wdowin , Katarzyna Mazur-Kajta , Tomasz Czech


Agricultural soil samples were collected from the areas where edible plants had been cultivated in southern Poland. The PHE content decreased in proportion to the median value specified in brackets (mg/kg d.m.) as follows: Zn (192) > Pb (47.1) > Cr (19.6) > Cu (18.8) > Ni (9.91) > As (5.73) > Co (4.63) > Sb (0.85) > Tl (0.04) > Cd (0.03) > Hg (0.001) > Se (< LOQ). No PHE concentrations exceeded the permissible levels defined in the Polish law. The PHE solubility (extracted with CaCl2) in the total concentration ranged in the following order: Fe (3.3%) > Cd (2.50%) > Ni (0.75%) > Zn (0.48%) > Cu (0.19%) > Pb (0.10%) > Cr (0.03%). The soil contamination indices revealed moderate contamination with Zn, ranging from uncontaminated to moderately contaminated with Pb, and, practically, no contamination with other PHEs was identified. The ecological risk indices revealed that soils ranged from uncontaminated to slightly contaminated with Zn, Pb, As, Cu, and Ni. The PCA indicated natural sources of origin of Co, Cu, Hg, Sb, Zn, Cr, and Pb, as well as anthropogenic sources of origin of Cd, Ni, As, and Tl. The human health risk assessment (HHRA) for adults and children decreased in the following order of exposure pathways: ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation of soil particles. The total carcinogenic risk values for both adults and children were at the acceptable level under residential (1.62E−05 and 6.39E−05) and recreational scenario (5.41E−06 and 2.46E−05), respectively, as well as for adults in agricultural scenario (1.45E−05). The total non-carcinogenic risk values for both adults and children under residential scenario (1.63E−01 and 4.55E−01, respectively), under recreational scenario (2.88E−01 and 6.69E−01, respectively) and for adults (1.03E−01) under agricultural scenario indicated that adverse health effects were not likely to be observed. Investigated soils were fully suitable for edible plant cultivation.
Author Agnieszka Gruszecka-Kosowska - University of Science and Technology (AGH)
Agnieszka Gruszecka-Kosowska,,
, Agnieszka Baran (FoAaE / DoAaECh)
Agnieszka Baran,,
- Department of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry
, Magdalena Wdowin - Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN)
Magdalena Wdowin,,
, Katarzyna Mazur-Kajta - Politechnika Opolska
Katarzyna Mazur-Kajta,,
, Tomasz Czech (FoAaE / DoAaECh)
Tomasz Czech,,
- Department of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry
Journal seriesEnvironmental Geochemistry and Health, ISSN 0269-4042, e-ISSN 1573-2983, (N/A 100 pkt)
Issue year2020
Publication size in sheets1.15
Keywords in EnglishAgricultural soils, Trace elements, Contamination factors, Ecological risk, Human health risk assessment, Bioavailability
ASJC Classification2700 General Medicine; 1906 Geochemistry and Petrology; 2300 General Environmental Science; 2304 Environmental Chemistry; 2305 Environmental Engineering; 2312 Water Science and Technology
Languageen angielski
LicenseJournal (articles only); author's original; Uznanie Autorstwa (CC-BY); after publication
gruszecka-kosowska2019-article-thecontentsofthepotentiallyhar-1.pdf 1 MB
Score (nominal)100
Score sourcejournalList
Publication indicators WoS Citations = 6; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2018 = 1.184; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 3.252 (2) - 2018=3.282 (5)
Citation count*6 (2020-08-14)
Additional fields
FinansowanieThis research was supported within the framework of Statutory Research Grant No. and Dean’s Grant No. by the AGH University of Science and Technology.
Share Share

Get link to the record

* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.
Are you sure?