The contents of the potentially harmful elements in the arable soils of southern Poland, with the assessment of ecological and health risks: a case study
Agnieszka Gruszecka-Kosowska , Agnieszka Baran , Magdalena Wdowin , Katarzyna Mazur-Kajta , Tomasz Czech
AbstractAgricultural soil samples were collected from the areas where edible plants had been cultivated in southern Poland. The PHE content decreased in proportion to the median value specified in brackets (mg/kg d.m.) as follows: Zn (192) > Pb (47.1) > Cr (19.6) > Cu (18.8) > Ni (9.91) > As (5.73) > Co (4.63) > Sb (0.85) > Tl (0.04) > Cd (0.03) > Hg (0.001) > Se (< LOQ). No PHE concentrations exceeded the permissible levels defined in the Polish law. The PHE solubility (extracted with CaCl2) in the total concentration ranged in the following order: Fe (3.3%) > Cd (2.50%) > Ni (0.75%) > Zn (0.48%) > Cu (0.19%) > Pb (0.10%) > Cr (0.03%). The soil contamination indices revealed moderate contamination with Zn, ranging from uncontaminated to moderately contaminated with Pb, and, practically, no contamination with other PHEs was identified. The ecological risk indices revealed that soils ranged from uncontaminated to slightly contaminated with Zn, Pb, As, Cu, and Ni. The PCA indicated natural sources of origin of Co, Cu, Hg, Sb, Zn, Cr, and Pb, as well as anthropogenic sources of origin of Cd, Ni, As, and Tl. The human health risk assessment (HHRA) for adults and children decreased in the following order of exposure pathways: ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation of soil particles. The total carcinogenic risk values for both adults and children were at the acceptable level under residential (1.62E−05 and 6.39E−05) and recreational scenario (5.41E−06 and 2.46E−05), respectively, as well as for adults in agricultural scenario (1.45E−05). The total non-carcinogenic risk values for both adults and children under residential scenario (1.63E−01 and 4.55E−01, respectively), under recreational scenario (2.88E−01 and 6.69E−01, respectively) and for adults (1.03E−01) under agricultural scenario indicated that adverse health effects were not likely to be observed. Investigated soils were fully suitable for edible plant cultivation.
|Journal series||Environmental Geochemistry and Health, ISSN 0269-4042, e-ISSN 1573-2983, (N/A 100 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||1.15|
|Keywords in English||Agricultural soils, Trace elements, Contamination factors, Ecological risk, Human health risk assessment, Bioavailability|
|ASJC Classification||; ; ; ; ;|
|License||Journal (articles only); author's original; ; after publication|
|Publication indicators||= 6; : 2018 = 1.184; : 2018 = 3.252 (2) - 2018=3.282 (5)|
|Citation count*||6 (2020-08-14)|
|Finansowanie||This research was supported within the framework of Statutory Research Grant No. 220.127.116.11 and Dean’s Grant No. 18.104.22.1687 by the AGH University of Science and Technology.|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.