Równowaga hydrodynamiczna ważnym parametrem kształtującym stan ekologiczny cieków karpackich
Andrzej Strużyński , Wojciech Bartnik , Krzysztof Kulesza , Katarzyna Czoch
AbstractAccording to the Water Framework Directive human activities should lead to an improvement or at least stabilizing of water ecosystems. Due to the adaptive nature of living species, reference conditions specified under the WFD for mountain river should be tested after reaching of proper hydromorphological parameters. The hydrodynamical balance of mountain river channel is reflected by it's plan view as well as by vertical and cross-sectional layouts. Mountain river in natural conditions produce a clearly defined riffle and pool system and can create a variety of channels with bars. Fluvial processes occurring in mountain rivers differ much from those that occur in lowland rivers. Beds of mountain rivers and streams, due to the water flow in high bed relative roughness conditions, are sensitive to changes in the bed material composition, size and shape. In these circumstances, bedforms are not created. While low and medium flows, there is no sediment transport, and only minor grain hide, sorting and armoring processes form the top of the bed. Granulometric curve changes depend on variations in several parameters. During the process of creating or removing the armored layer, the variation of fractions describing bed stability and water flow conditions exist. In a changing regime of watercourses functioning with the rough bottom, the standard deviation of the curve correctly reflects the bed material sorting processes. Armored bottom exists for it's values less than 1.6, and in the natural conditions the value does not fall below 1.3. In this case, fine material is almost completely removed from the bottom of the cover. Below the reaches of river sources, which are the steepest sections of mountain streams, riverbeds mostly achieve hydrodynamic balance and this is the optimal condition for the development of the aquatic ecosystem. When the incised channel, with armored bottom in alluvial river is found, it often shows a limited supply of bed material. Many factors can affect the change of the river channel so the stable morphological state occurs after some time, and after many oscillations around the optimal condition. It is a period of a few to tens of years. In any case, one can determine the state and intensity of fluvial processes. This paper presents a proposal for the implementation of the hydrodynamic balance to assess their ecological status as one of the first and basic. The assessment of the alluvial rivers hydrodynamic balance is shown on the example of the Skawa river (section above the mouth of Bystrzanka stream). Hydrodynamic balance of the channel was based on the analysis of interdependencies between riverbed bandwidth, the channel lateral and vertical layout and bed stability for the characteristic flows of the water: (Q75%, Q50%Q25%, Q10%and Q1%, bankfull an dominant flows). Bed stability analysis presented in the paper was performed using the computer program ARMOUR. Calculations were performed by comparing the critical Shields stresses characterizing all fractions of bed material to the bed shear stresses of the flowing water. On the basis of analysis of the riverbed in this section it was classified as natural.
|Journal series||Annual Set The Environment Protection, ISSN 1506-218X, (A 15 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.95|
|Keywords in Polish||równowaga hydrodynamiczna, cieki karpackie, stan ekologiczny|
|Keywords in English||hydrodynamical balance, ecological status|
|Score|| = 15.0, 26-07-2017, ArticleFromJournal|
= 15.0, 26-07-2017, ArticleFromJournal
|Citation count*||2 (2016-08-11)|
|Oświadczenie o afiliacji||.A.Strużyński - dołączone do publikacji|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.