Concentration and size distribution of microbial aerosol in the historical objects in Kraków as a potential health risk and biodeterioration factor
Maria Jolanta Chmiel , Iga Kral , Anna Lenart-Boroń
AbstractHistorical facilities such as churches, crypts, libraries and museums are crucial for preserving cultural heritage but at the same time, they are frequently visited tourist objects and working environment. The aim of this study was to assess whether there are differences in the concentration and size distribution of bacterial and fungal aerosol in the mentioned groups of historical objects in Kraków, as well as to determine if there is tendency for seasonal fluctuations of bioaerosol concentrations, and what environmental parameters affect them most significantly. The concentrations of bacterial and fungal aerosol were measured in ten historical objects—churches, crypts, libraries and museums—using a six-stage Andersen impactor. Microbiological analyses were accompanied by measurements of particulate matter (PM10, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1) and microclimatic parameters. The results showed that the studied objects differ in terms of bioaerosol levels, but the differences were not drastic and in terms of bacterial aerosol concentrations the objects can be arranged as follows: churches > libraries > museums > crypts, while for fungal aerosol the order would be: churches > museums > crypts > libraries. The concentrations of bioaerosol did not exceed the safety levels for human exposure, but the levels suggesting possible threat of biodeterioration and the presence of internal source of contamination were exceeded in nearly all sites. The share of respirable fraction of bioaerosol was high (42.1–90.5% for bacteria and 80.7–94.7% for fungi). Bioaerosol concentration was most significantly associated with indoor temperature, and the impact of particulate matter was only moderate.
|Journal series||Aerobiologia, ISSN 0393-5965, e-ISSN 1573-3025, (N/A 70 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||37.15|
|Keywords in English||Bioaerosol, Historical objects, Indoor air quality, Particulate matter|
|ASJC Classification||; ;|
|License||Journal (articles only); author's original; ; after publication|
|Publication indicators||= 0; : 2018 = 0.998; : 2018 = 1.931 (2) - 2018=2.155 (5)|
|Finansowanie||This study was funded by the statutory measures of the University of Agriculture—Grant No. DS 3159/KM.|
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