Degradation of Glycocalyx and Multiple Manifestations of Endothelial Dysfunction Coincide in the Early Phase of Endothelial Dysfunction Before Atherosclerotic Plaque Development in Apolipoprotein E/Low‐Density Lipoprotein Receptor‐Deficient Mice
Anna Bar , Marta Targosz-Korecka , Joanna Suraj , Bartosz Proniewski , Agnieszka Jasztal , Brygida Marczyk , Magdalena Sternak , Magdalena Przybyło , Anna Krupińska , Maria Walczak , Renata Kostogrys , Marek Szymonski , Stefan Chlopicki
AbstractBackground: The impairment of endothelium‐dependent vasodilation, increased endothelial permeability, and glycocalyx degradation are all important pathophysiological components of endothelial dysfunction. However, it is still not clear whether in atherosclerosis, glycocalyx injury precedes other features of endothelial dysfunction or these events coincide. Methods and Results: Herein, we demonstrate that in 4‐ to 8‐week‐old apolipoprotein E/low‐density lipoprotein receptor‐deficient mice, at the stage before development of atherosclerotic plaques, impaired acetylcholine‐induced vasodilation, reduced NO production in aorta, and increased endothelial permeability were all observed; however, flow‐mediated dilation in the femoral artery was fully preserved. In 4‐week‐old mice, glycocalyx coverage was reduced and endothelial stiffness was increased, whereas glycocalyx length was significantly decreased at 8 weeks of age. Early changes in endothelial function were also featured by increased plasma concentration of biomarkers of glycocalyx disruption (endocan), biomarkers of endothelial inflammation (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1), increased vascular permeability (angiopoietin 2), and alterations in hemostasis (tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1). In 28‐week‐old mice, at the stage of advanced atherosclerotic plaque development, impaired NO production and nearly all other features of endothelial dysfunction were changed to a similar extent, compared with the preatherosclerotic plaque phase. The exceptions were the occurrence of acetylcholine‐induced vasoconstriction in the aorta and brachiocephalic artery, impaired flow‐mediated vasodilation in the femoral artery, and further reduction of glycocalyx length and coverage with a concomitant further increase in endothelial permeability. Conclusions: In conclusion, even at the early stage before the development of atherosclerotic plaques, endothelial dysfunction is a complex multifactorial response that has not been previously appreciated.
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