Phytoremediation potential of Vetiveria zizanioides and Oryza sativa to nitrate and organic substance removal in vertical flow constructed wetland systems

Adelaide Almeida , Carlos Ribeiro , Fátima Carvalho , Anabela Durao , Piotr Bugajski , Karolina Kurek , Patrycja Pochwatka , Krzysztof Jóźwiakowski


The aim of this work was to determine the potential of phytoremediation of Vetiveria zizanioides and Oryza sativa to nitrate (NO3−-N) and organic matter (COD – chemical oxygen demand) removal in subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland systems (VFCWs). The tests were carried out in models of 2 beds with a surface of 0.24 m2 and depth 0.70 m each at various hydraulic loads (HL) and COD constant in influente wastewater. The VFCW-1 bed was planted with the Vetiveria zizanioides and the VFCW-2 bed with the Oryza sativa. During the 22 weeks of research, the hydraulic load of the analyzed beds was: HL1 = 148 dm3·m−2·d−1, HL2 = 239 dm3·m−2·d−1, HL3 = 350 dm3·m−2·d−1, HL4 = 473 dm3·m−2·d−1. The VFCWs were fed from two reservoirs, one with mineral medium and nitrate, and the other one with fructose as organic matter. Based on the conducted tests, it was found that in both analyzed systems (VFCW-1 and VFCW-2) the highest NO3−-N removal rate was found under HL2 – the median is 59 and 42% respectively. The most effective removal of COD in the VFCW-1 system was obtained at a HL2 – 55%, while in the system VFCW-2 at a HL1 – 43%. The research shows that the low HL and high COD/NO3−-N ratio ensures good effects of nitrate and organic matter removal in VF type constructed wetland systems. It has been shown that the analyzed plants, especially Vetiveria zizanioides have good phytoremediation potential in the field of nitrate nitrogen and organic substance removal and can be recommended for use on a full scale of technology.
Author Adelaide Almeida
Adelaide Almeida,,
, Carlos Ribeiro
Carlos Ribeiro,,
, Fátima Carvalho
Fátima Carvalho,,
, Anabela Durao
Anabela Durao,,
, Piotr Bugajski (FoEEaLS / DoSEaWM)
Piotr Bugajski,,
- Department of Sanitary Engineering and Water Management
, Karolina Kurek (FoEEaLS / DoSEaWM)
Karolina Kurek,,
- Department of Sanitary Engineering and Water Management
, Patrycja Pochwatka
Patrycja Pochwatka,,
, Krzysztof Jóźwiakowski
Krzysztof Jóźwiakowski,,
Journal seriesEcological Engineering, ISSN 0925-8574, e-ISSN 1872-6992, (N/A 100 pkt)
Issue year2019
Publication size in sheets0.5
Keywords in EnglishConstructed wetland, Vertical flow, Nitrate nitrogen, COD, Vetiveria zizanioides, Oryza sativa
ASJC Classification2305 Environmental Engineering; 2308 Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law; 2309 Nature and Landscape Conservation
Languageen angielski
Score (nominal)100
Score sourcejournalList
Publication indicators WoS Citations = 0; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2018 = 1.451; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 3.406 (2) - 2018=3.617 (5)
Citation count*5 (2020-10-06)
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