Upward expansion of distribution ranges of tree species: Contrasting results from two national parks in Western Carpathians
Anna Gazda , Piotr Kościelniak , Mylène Hardy , Elżbieta Muter , Kamil Kędra , Jan Bodziarczyk , Magdalena Frączek , Kazimierz Chwistek , Wojciech Różański , Jerzy Szwagrzyk
AbstractWe analysed the distribution of trees along the elevation gradient in two national parks located in the Western Carpathians (49°30′–49°37′ N; 19°28′–20°15′ E), dominated by natural forest stands to answer two questions: do immature trees occur at higher elevations compared to mature ones? Has the upper limit of the distribution of the seedlings increased during the period under study, and were the changes proportional to the increase in the mean annual temperature in that period? Data used in our study had been collected in permanent sample plots, distributed regularly over the entire forest area in two national parks. The measurements were taken twice, separated by at least 12 years. We analysed the upper distribution range of the most abundant tree species following tree ontogenic stages for two measurement times. The analysed tree species showed contrasting patterns of the distributions of saplings related to the distributions of mature individuals. In one of the national parks, two species (Silver fir and European beech) showed a significant upward expansion. As three measurements were taken in this park, we found that the expansion has increased over time. In the second national park, located only 45 km to the west from the first one, we found no upward expansion in the distribution of both European beech and Silver fir, while Sycamore maple showed a slight downward trend. We conclude that the dynamics of the tree distributions along the elevation gradient in the mountain areas do not follow a uniform path; the indirect effects of changes in environmental conditions may produce different patterns, reflecting the complex nature of the interactions shaping the distributions of the trees.
|Journal series||Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, e-ISSN 1879-1026, (N/A 200 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.5|
|Keywords in English||Elevational gradient, Range expansion, Saplings, Seedlings, Tree, ontogenic stages,Tree recruitment|
|ASJC Classification||; ; ;|
|Publication indicators||= 0; : 2016 = 1.849; : 2018 = 5.589 (2) - 2018=5.727 (5)|
|Citation count*||1 (2020-03-28)|
|Finansowanie||Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Republic of Poland (DS-3421)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.