The current state of environmental pollution with sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Poland based on sulfur concentration in Scots pine needles
Justyna Likus-Cieślik , Jarosław Socha , Piotr Gruba , Marcin Pietrzykowski
AbstractThe current air pollution by SO2due to anthropogenic pressure in Poland was assessed based on sulfurconcentrations in pine needles (Pinus sylvestrisL.). On 308 monitoring sample plots located in pine standsdistributed across Poland, measurements were conducted in mineral soil layers (0e10 cm, 10e40 cm, 40e100 cm) and in the soil organic layer (þ5e0 cm). Samples of Scots pine foliage (current-year needles)were then collected, and the sulfur concentration in these needles was determined. Based on these data,a map of the spatial variability of sulfur concentrations in pine needles was drawn. The mean sulfurconcentration in the pine needles was 854.8 mg kg�1in dry mass. Higher SO2emissions were noted inregions influenced by industry, such as the Upper Silesia and regions under strong urban pressure. Sulfurconcentrations in Scots pine needles were related to the stands' degrees of defoliation. A comparison ofthe current sulfur concentrations in pine needles from biomonitoring in 2015e2016 with those fromprevious biomonitoring (in 1983e1985, byDmuchowski and Bytnerowicz (1995)showed that air qualityhas improved and SO2emissions have decreased.
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