Multiannual Assessment of the Risk of Surface Water Erosion and Metal Accumulation Indices in the Flysch Stream Using the MARS Model in the Polish Outer Western Carpathians
Wiktor Halecki , Tomasz Kowalik , Andrzej Bogdał
AbstractThe anthropogenic problems in richly sculpted areas (mountain and submontane) are mainly related to agricultural activity, which shapes the quality of surface waters. This paper presents an analysis of the results of the hydrochemical tests carried out in the years 2007–2018 at check-control spots. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI <100) indicated a low risk for aquatic organisms. The statistical calculations obtained by means of multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) designated that the hazard quotient (HQ) index can be combined with the electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved substances (TDS) parameters used in the assessment of water erosion. The HQ index showed that the concentration of individual heavy metals is lower than their value in the 0.5 percentile of the value. In subsequent studies, it should be assessed whether the size of arable land has an impact on the increased concentration of heavy metals in the surface water. We recommend small retention reservoirs as a potential management measure to improve the quality of the surface water at a regional scale. This study has great potential to mitigate the degradation processes related to the insufficient storage capacity, and to promote natural water retention.
|Journal series||Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, (N/A 70 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||1.15|
|Keywords in English||Surface water quality; flysch stream; heavy metals; catchment use; soil and water conservation; multivariate analysis|
|ASJC Classification||; ;|
|License||Journal (articles only); author's original; ; after publication|
|Publication indicators||= 0; : 2016 = 0.911; : 2018 = 2.592 (2) - 2018=2.801 (5)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.