Probiotyki w żywieniu bydła
Barbara Niwińska , Iwona Furgał-Dierżuk , Jarosław Wieczorek
AbstractThe main activity site of probiotics used as feed additives in cattle nutrition is the gastrointestinal tract, and their purpose is to create or maintain beneficial composition of microflora as well as competitive exclusion of pathogens. The colonization of a sterile gut by microbes in newborn calves gives rise to the gut microbiome, which is formed depending on external factors, including the mother’s microflora, the parturition process, the type of feed, and the interaction between the calf’s body and the microorganisms. Unfavourable environmental conditions (poor hygiene, improper feeding) disturb this process and result in the intestinal dysbiosis, which is conducive to the colonization by pathogens. The results of studies that have been performed since the 1980s showed the effectiveness of using probiotics in calves in the first weeks of life. They improve resistance to pathogenic infections, improve body weight gains and feed conversion. The most promising group of probiotics for calves are selected strains of Lactobacillus, Bacillus and Propionibacterium bacteria. The gut microbiome in adult cattle is a complex, open and dynamic ruminal microbial ecosystem, which forms a sustainable environment, in which nutrients from feed are a substrate for the metabolic reactions of rumen microorganisms, and the main products of these reactions are used by the host’s organism as a source of energy and protein. High-producing cattle have a high energy requirement, which must be met by rations that provide energy mainly from metabolism of carbohydrates quickly degraded in the rumen. Such diet composition increases digesta acidity, permanently disturbs fermentation balance, and alters composition of the microbial population, leading to dysfunction of the ruminal metabolic ecosystem. In the last 30 years, many studies evaluated the efficiency of probiotics in preventing ruminal metabolic dysfunctions and in improving the health and yields of high-producing dairy cows. It was found that the most effective probiotics in preventing rumen acidosis are selected strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas combinations of yeast with Enterococcus faecium, Megasphaera elsdeni and Ruminococcus bromii bacteria are less effective. Selected strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are also efficient in improving health, performance, dry matter intake, milk composition and nutrient absorption in the hindgut of cows. Lower efficiency is shown by selected strains of Lactobacillus and Propionibacterium bacteria. The presented research results concerning the application of probiotics cannot be used to make generalizations. They refer only to the efficiency of specific strains, species and types of microorganisms, specific mixtures of these, and strictly defined feeding conditions.
|Other language title versions||Probiotics in cattle nutrition|
|Journal series||Wiadomości Zootechniczne, ISSN 1731-8068, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.55|
|Keywords in English||probiotics, bovine gut microbiome, intestinal dysbiosis in calves, dysfunction of the ruminal microbial ecosystem|
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