Analiza struktury genetycznej populacji jako narzędzie ochrony zasobów genetycznych zwierząt w świetle ostatnich badań
AbstractIn biology and in animal science estimating genetic variability has always been one of prime issues. Therefore, in 1992 in Nairobi, the UN adopted the Agreed Text of the Convention on Biological Diversity (ratified in Poland in 1995), and in 2002 the EU started the EFABIS project “to create an integrate infrastructure of databases to monitor farm animal biodiversity (FAB) in Europe”.* The standard approach to monitor genetic diversity is to estimate inbreeding and relationship coefficients to avoid inbreeding depression. Additionally, effective population size, effective number of founders and ancestors are calculated. The topics dealt with are, for example, in cattle population: estimation of inbreeding and relationship coefficients, their trends, their effect on stillbirth or longevity, effective number of founders and ancestors; in pigs: effective population size; in sheep: influence of mating system on inbreeding and the effect of the latter on body weight, longevity and reproduction; in horse family (Equidae): inbreeding and relationship coefficients, their effect on retained placenta or zoometric measurements; in dogs: inbreeding (also its influence on hip dysplasia) and effective population size, means of avoiding increased homozygosity or even extinction of small breeds. Even in apparently large cattle populations the effective size is a problem because of distorted sex ratio resulting from artificial insemination. In response to increasing needs for the exchange of information on endangered populations, since 2004, there have been attempts to unify the criteria for classifying endangerment level. In short, estimating genetic variability is of prime importance in small populations or in those in which sex ratio has changed, leading to a decline in effective size.
|Other language title versions||Analysis of population genetic structure as a tool to preserve genetic resources – a review|
|Journal series||Wiadomości Zootechniczne, ISSN 1731-8068, (B 7 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.65|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.