Impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on neural development and the onset of neurological disorders

Małgorzata Kajta , Anna Wójtowicz

Abstract

Even though high doses of organic pollutants are toxic, relatively low concentrations have been reported to cause long-term alterations in functioning of individual organisms, populations and even next generations. Among these pollutants are dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, brominated flame retardants, plasticizers (bisphenol A, nonylphenol, and phthalates) as well as personal care products and drugs. In addition to toxic effects, they are able to interfere with hormone receptors, hormone synthesis or hormone conversion. Because these chemicals alter hormone-dependent processes and disrupt functioning of the endocrine glands, they have been classified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Because certain EDCs are able to alter neural transmission and the formation of neural networks, the term neural-disrupting chemicals has been introduced, thus implicating EDCs in the etiology of neurological disorders. Recently, public concern has been focused on the effects of EDCs on brain function, concomitantly with an increase in neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder as well as learning disabilities and aggressiveness. Several lines of evidence suggest that exposure to EDCs is associated with depression and could result in neural degeneration. EDCs act via several classes of receptors with the best documented mechanisms being reported for nuclear steroid and xenobiotic receptors. Low doses of EDCs have been postulated to cause incomplete methylation of specific gene regions in the young brain and to impair neural development and brain functions across generations. Efforts are needed to develop systematic epidemiological studies and to investigate the mechanisms of action of EDCs in order to fully understand their effects on wildlife and humans.
Author Małgorzata Kajta
Małgorzata Kajta,,
-
, Anna Wójtowicz (FoAS)
Anna Wójtowicz,,
- Faculty of Animal Sciences
Journal seriesPharmacological Reports, ISSN 1734-1140, (A 25 pkt)
Issue year2013
Vol65
No6
Pages1632-1639
Publication size in sheets0.5
Keywords in Englishestrogen receptors, aryl hydrocarbon receptors, PPARγ, RXR, fetal basis of adult-onset disease, nervous system
ASJC Classification3004 Pharmacology; 2700 General Medicine
DOIDOI:10.1016/S1734-1140(13)71524-X
URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S173411401371524X#
Internal identifierWHiBZ/2013/91
Languageen angielski
Score (nominal)25
Score sourcejournalList
Publication indicators Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2014 = 0.916; WoS Impact Factor: 2013 = 2.165 (2) - 2013=2.402 (5)
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