Flutamide Alters the Expression of Chemerin, Apelin, and Vaspin and Their Respective Receptors in the Testes of Adult Rats
Małgorzata Brzoskwinia , Laura Pardyak , Agnieszka Rak , Alicja Kamińska , Anna Hejmej , S. Marek , Małgorzata Kotula-Balak , Barbara Bilinska
AbstractAdipokines influence energy metabolism and have effects on male reproduction, including spermatogenesis and/or Sertoli cell maturation; however, the relationship between these active proteins and androgens in testicular cells is limited. Here, we studied the impact of short-term exposure to flutamide (an anti-androgen that blocks androgen receptors) on the expression of chemerin, apelin, vaspin and their receptors (CCRL2, CMKLR1, GPR1, APLNR, GRP78, respectively) in adult rat testes. Moreover, the levels of expression of lipid metabolism-modulating proteins (PLIN1, perilipin1; TSPO, translocator protein) and intercellular adherens junction proteins (nectin-2 and afadin) were determined in testicular cells. Plasma levels of adipokines, testosterone and cholesterol were also evaluated. Gene expression techniques used included the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The androgen-mediated effects observed post-flutamide treatment were found at the gonadal level as chemerin, apelin, and vaspin gene expression alterations at mRNA and protein levels were detected, whereas the cellular targets for these adipokines were recognised by localisation of respective receptors in testicular cells. Plasma concentrations of all adipokines were unchanged, whereas plasma cholesterol content and testosterone level increased after flutamide exposure. Differential distribution of adipokine receptors indicates potential para- or autocrine action of the adipokines within the rat testes. Additionally, changes in the expression of PLIN1 and TSPO, involved in the initial step of testosterone synthesis in Leydig cells, suggest that testicular cells represent a target of flutamide action. Increase in the gene expression of PLIN1 and TSPO and higher total plasma cholesterol content indicates enhanced availability of cholesterol in Leydig cells as a result of androgen-mediated effects of flutamide. Alterations in adherens junction protein expression in the testis confirm the flutamide efficacy in disruption of androgen signalling and presumably lead to impaired para- and autocrine communication, important for proper functioning of adipokines.
|Journal series||International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, (N/A 140 pkt)|
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|Publication indicators||: 2018 = 1.224; : 2018 = 4.183 (2) - 2018=4.331 (5)|
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