Wpływ owadów kambio- i ksylofagicznych na drzewostany Ojcowskiego Parku Narodowego

Wojciech Ząbecki

Abstract

As a result of industrial imissions and impairment of forest stands, the severity of tree-decay in the Ojcowski National Park (OPN) was particularly intensive in the second half of the last century. The main forest-forming species present in the ONP showed varied decay dynamics. High rate of fir dieback and mass occurrence of cambio- and xylophagous insects, became particularly evident in the 70s and the first half of the 80s of the last century (tab. 1). Individual branches in the apical part of the crown of firs in the dominant stand were mainly inhabited by Pityophthorus pityographus (Ratz.) and Pityokteines vorontzovi (Jacobs.). Feeding of those species caused further weakening of trees and allowed the colonization of the apical part of the Pityokteines spinidens (Reitt.), Pityokteines curvidens (Germ.), Pissodes piceae (Illig.) and further. In the last phase, the crucial role was played by xylophagous insects and species inhabiting only dead wood (tab. 4). Despite artificial origin, pine stands in the ONP, retained satisfactory resistance potential. Rhagium inquisitor was found in younger stands, mostly in deadwood and a large percentage of trees decaying in the bottom of the trunk was inhabited by Tomicus piniperda (L.), Xyloterus lineatus and Tetropium castaneum (L.) (tab. 5). Pissodes piniphilus (Herbst), Pityophthorus pityographus and Pogonocherus fasciculatus (Deg.) were detected in upper parts of trunks and in crowns. In the stands of middle-age class, in addition to species demonstrated in the dying trees, Sirex noctilio F., T. minor (Hrtg.) and Phaenops cyanea (F.) appeared also in trees from younger stands. In older stands, the group of cambioand xylophagous insects infesting pines was supplemented with Pityogenes bidentatus (Herbst). Tomicus piniperda, Xyloterus lineatus, Pityophthorus pityographus, Tomicus minor and Tetropium castaneum occurred much more often, compared to the stands of younger and middle-aged class (tab. 5). In the past few decades, spruce forests also exhibited low vitality and they tended to decay prematurely. Pityogenes chalcographus (L.) and Ips typographus (L.) predominated in decaying trees from the upper levels of the stand. They were accompanied by Ips amitinus (Eichh.), Pityophthorus pityographus, Phthorophloeus spinulosus Rey, Rhagium inquisitor, Xyloterus lineatus and Sirex juvencus (tab. 6). The decay intensity of larch in the ONP was significantly lower than of other conifers. Only Tetropium gabrieli Weise presented high incidence, predominantly colonizing trunks up to bottoms of crowns and covering all their perimeters. Other species did not exhibit such strong colonization intensity. Pityophthorus pityographus and Cryphalus intermedius Ferr. found convenient development conditions, not only on deadwood trees, but also on lower branches of trees that showed no signs of dieback. The intensity of incidence of cambio- and xylophagous insects in oak stands was rather low. The weakened trees were colonized by Scolytus intricatus (Ratz.) and Leiopus nebulosus (L.). The former one was less frequent, both on trunks and in crowns, the latter one occurred on all trunks of decaying oaks, but it was mostly dispersed. The occurrence of cambio- and xylophagous insects was detected on small number of decaying or felled beech trees. It was proved that the most common species of insects developing on beech trees were Acanthoderes clavipes (Schrank), Ernoporicus fagi (F.), Phymatodes testaceus (L.), Scolytus multistriatus (Marsh.) and S. intricatus (Ratz.).
Author Wojciech Ząbecki (FoF / DoFPFEaC)
Wojciech Ząbecki,,
- Department of Forest Protection, Forest Entomology and Climatology
Other language title versionsThe impact cambio- and xylophagous insects on forest stands of the Ojcowski National Park
Pages169-183
Publication size in sheets0.7
Book Ząbecki Wojciech (eds.): Rola i udział owadów w funkcjonowaniu ekosystemów leśnych, 2013, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rolniczego, ISBN 978-83-60633-92-2, 349 p.
Keywords in Polishowady kambiofagiczne, owady ksylofagiczne, Abies alba, Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies
Keywords in Englishcambiophagous insects, xylophagous insects, Abies alba, Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies
Abstract in PolishW pracy opisano dynamikę obumierania głównych gatunków lasotwórczych w drzewostanach Ojcowskiego Parku Narodowego, które przez kilkadziesiąt lat były pod presją imisji przemysłowych. Drzewa obumierały szczególnie intensywnie z powodu licznego zasiedlenia ich przez owady kambio- i ksylofagiczne. Zamieranie jodły przebiegało szczególnie intensywnie w latach 70. i 80., czemu sprzyjało liczne występowanie Pityokteines spp. i Pissodes piceae (Illig.). Sosna wykazywała większą stabilność, niemniej silnie osłabione drzewa były licznie opanowywane przez Pissodes piniphilus (Herbst), Tomicus piniperda (L.). Na świerkach z oznakami kryzysu zdrowotnego, dominowały: Pityogenes chalcographus (L.) i Ips typographus (L.). Korzystniejszy obraz przedstawiały drzewostany dębowe i bukowe, na których entomofauna kambiofagiczna nie wykazywała wysokiej aktywności.
Internal identifierWL/M/29/2013; WL/6/21
Languagepl polski
Score (nominal)4
ScoreMinisterial score = 5.0, 27-07-2017, BookChapterNotSeriesNotMainLanguages
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