Size distribution and concentration of fungal aerosol in animal premises of a zoological garden

Jacek Grzyb , Anna Lenart-Boroń


The exposure to airborne dusts and microorganisms is associated with respiratory diseases and other health effects. Currently, research concerning fungal aerosol and particulate matter levels in animal enclosures of zoological gardens is very scarce. Such premises are characterized by numerous sources of air contamination, and they are both working environment and popular tourist attractions. This study aimed to assess the levels of fungal aerosol in animal premises (tapirs, giraffes, pygmy hippos, monkeys, meerkats, pheasants, ostriches, exotarium) of the Kraków Zoo. The bioaerosol samples were collected using a six-stage Andersen impactor to assess the concentrations and size distribution of airborne fungi. Particulate matter (PM10, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1) concentration was assessed using DustTrak Aerosol Monitor. PM concentrations were relatively low (0.048–0.204 mg/m3) and did not exceed the limit values for occupational exposure. Also, the levels of fungal aerosol in almost all cases did not exceed the limit values. The smallest concentration of the total fungal aerosol was observed in the rooms for hippos (approx. 970 CFU/m3) while the highest—in exotarium (16,800 CFU/m3). The share of respirable fraction of bioaerosol was quite high—from 62.6% in monkey houses to 89.2% in exotarium. Having in mind that bioaerosol-forming fungi may contain allergenic species, attention should be paid to thorough cleaning of animals and their premises, and maintaining appropriate levels of microclimatic parameters in the rooms.
Author Jacek Grzyb (FoAaE / DoMaB)
Jacek Grzyb,,
- Department of Microbiology and Biomonitoring
, Anna Lenart-Boroń (FoAaE / DoMaB)
Anna Lenart-Boroń,,
- Department of Microbiology and Biomonitoring
Journal seriesAerobiologia, ISSN 0393-5965, e-ISSN 1573-3025, (N/A 70 pkt)
Issue year2020
Publication size in sheets0.75
Keywords in EnglishBioaerosol exposure, Molds, Particulate matter, Spores
ASJC Classification2723 Immunology and Allergy; 1110 Plant Science; 2403 Immunology
Languageen angielski
LicenseJournal (articles only); author's original; Other open licence; after publication
Size distribution and concentration of fungal aerosol in animal premises of a zoological garden of 11-05-2020
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Score (nominal)70
Score sourcejournalList
Publication indicators Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2018 = 0.998; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 1.931 (2) - 2018=2.155 (5)
Citation count*
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FinansowanieThis study was funded by the statutory measures of the University of Agriculture—Grant No. DS 3158/KM
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