Owady zasiedlające szyszki świerka pospolitego Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. w wybranych drzewostanach Beskidu Śląskiego i Beskidu Żywieckigo w latach 2011–2012
Małgorzata Skrzypczyńska , Tomasz Kupczak
AbstractInvestigations were conducted in forest stands of the Besid Śląski Mts. (BŚ) and the Beskid Żywiecki Mts. (BŻ) in the years 2011–2012. In both these regions study plots were established in the altitude 900 m and 1200 m above sea level (Fig. 1, 2). Mentioned plots were located in the Węgierska Górka Forest District, in the mountain and the high mountain forest types. There were 320 cones collected in total (160 in BŚ and 160 in BŻ) from 16 spruces (Table 1, 2). Cone samples were used for analysis and for mass rearing in glass jars. Moreover from cones extracted seeds 1600 (800 from BŚ and 800 from BŻ) were taken for analysis by cutting, defining the percentage of viable, infertile and insect damage seeds (Table 3, 4). To evaluate the extent of cone infestation by insects in each of the regions during two years, an index of cone infestation (ICI) was calculated by dividing the number of specimens of a given species by the number of cones in a samples. As a result of the investigations 17 insect species (694 specimens) (392 from BŚ and 302 from BŻ) were obtained (Table 5, 6). They belong to 5 orders: Heteroptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. Insects represented the conophages: Cydia strobilella L. (Lep., Tortricidae) and Kaltenbachiola strobi (Winn.) (Dipt., Cecidomyiidae) (Fig. 3, 4) as well as seminiphage Megastigmus strobilobius Ratz. (Hym., Torymidae). Index of cone infestation (ICI) varied from 2.08 for C. strobilella (BŚ, 2012) to 0.03 for C. strobilella and K. strobi (BŚ, 2012) as well as for M. strobilobius (BŚ, 2011). This index varied for individual species and different years in both years in both region (Table 7, 8). An analysis of 1600 seeds shown that 575 (35.9%) of all examined seeds (41.7% BŚ, 30.1% BŻ) were destroyed by conophages. The greatest losses (66.5%) occurred in 2012 in the Beskid Śląski Mts. (900 m a.s.l.) and the smallest one (5.5%) in the Beskid Żywiecki Mts. (1200 m a.s.l.) in 2012. Mentioned losses varied considerably in both regions (Table 3, 4). Damage to seeds caused by the seminiphage M. strobilobius was amounting to about 1% (Table 3, 4). During investigations parasitoids of these insects were noted. The relatively great role played Torymus azureus Boh. (Hym., Torymidae) (147 specimens in BŚ, 70 spec. in BŻ) from host Kaltenba chiola strobi. Other parasitoids were as follows: Liotryphon (Ephialtes) strobilella L., Venturia (Nemeritis) transfuga Grav. (Hym., Ichneumonidae), Baeacis abietis Ratz. (Hym., Braconidae), Platygaster (Triplatygaster) contorticornis Ratz. (Hym., Platygastridae), Torymus caudatus Boh. (Hym., Torymidae), Aprostocetus (Tetrastichus) strobilanae Ratz. (Hym., Eulophidae), Anogmus piceae (Ruschka), Anogmus sp. aff. vala (Walker), Anogmus sp. (Hym., Pteromalidae). There were from hosts Cydia strobilella, K. strobi and probably others insects inhabiting these cones.
|Other language title versions||Insects inhabiting cones of Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. in the selected stands of the Beskid Śląski Mts. and the Beskid Żywiecki Mts. in the years 2011–2012|
|Journal series||Acta Agraria et Silvestria series Silvestris, ISSN 0065-0927, (B 1 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||1.15|
|Keywords in Polish||Picea abies, szyszki, nasiona, szkodliwe owady, parazytoidy|
|Keywords in English||Picea abies, cones, seeds, damage insects, parasitoids|
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