Zróżnicowanie morfologiczne, ekologiczne i enzymatyczne gatunku Avena fatua L., występującego na polach Polski południowo-wschodniej
AbstractThe increasing threat of weed infestation posed to crops by A. fatua L. prompted the author of this study to start investigations aimed at determining changes in the range and intensity of wild oat infestation in southeastern Poland during the last decade. The investigations were also designed to examine the biology and ecology of oat ecotypes present in this region. Additionally, the distinctive features of these forms of oat were examined, which led to suggesting new taxonomy for the species. This work, for the first time in Poland, comprehensively describes the problem of intraspecific variability of wild oats. Besides morphological traits, also associations of different varieties with site conditions are considered, particulary with soil, crop and location in a specific region. Field experiments were carried out on individual oat forms to determine their competitiveness and sensitivity to herbicides. With a view of confirming genetic differences, enzymatic structure was investigated using isoenzymatic electrophoresis. Based on the morphological, ecological, biological and genetic differences observed in the oat ecotypes under study, new taxonomy of wild oats was suggested. Two sub-species were introduced: A. fatua L. subsp. fatua and A. fatua L. subsp. brevipilosa Kied, each including five varieties among which also those previously known and described are found. The botanical key to determining taxonomic units is given. In the investigated area, strong expansion of A. fatua L. started at the beginning of the 1990s and was observed on all soils, not only alkaline and fertile ones that had previously been considered typical for this species. Two varieties, i.e. fatua and alcaliphila, are associated with alkaline soils. Others, particulary var. acidophila, occur also on acid soils. Var. fatua and var. intermedia have the greatest contribution to the weed infestation of cropland and constitute the most serious threat to spring cereals and potatoes. Great differences in the resistance to herbicides containing different active groups, existing between individual botanical varieties, pose problems to agriculture. Inexpertly applied herbicides may lead to the compensation and expansion of resistant varieties, thus the application of herbicides should only supplement mechanical methods of A. fatua elimination. While selecting herbicides, one should consider which variety of A. fatua threatens the crop most.
|Other language title versions||Morphological, ecological and enzymatic differentiation of Avena fatua L. species on arable fields of southeastern Poland|
|Publisher||Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW |
|Publishing place (Publisher address)||Kraków|
|Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)||Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczej im. H. Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1233-4189, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||4.4|
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