Kryteria podziału taksonomicznego na przykładzie Zygaena (Agrumenia) Carniolica (Scopoli) (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae)
AbstractThe discussed species ie characterised by great geographical and Individual variabilities. Since the time it was desoribed in 1763 there have appeared a lot of descriptions of the inter-species taions which made the whole problems very complicated. This requires a critical review in which a number of factors are taken into consideration and special attention is paid to the evolutionary characteristics of the apecies. The author used materials gathered from different parts of Foland, from the CriMea and the Transcauoasus. Other materials come from the Bircpaean museums, the Soviet Union museums, and from numerous private collections. On the whole 11.400 specimens-were studied of which 6.900 were males and 4.500 were females. While selecting the taxonomio features merystic qualities were taken into account i.e. the length of forewinga and cgs, also the gedtal armatures of males and females, the drawing, and the colouration of the specimen. The statistical analysis were worked out by the computer of the Institute of Animal Husbandry at Balice near Krakow. The second part deals with the estimation of the chosen gialities from the point of their usefulness in establishing the criteria of taxonomic division. There is a discussion on the drawing colouration of the specimen in which a particular stress is put on the variabilities of the forewinge and hindwings. The author considered the possibility of influence of external and internal factors on the shaping of variabilities in various populations. He also analysed the results of the experimental investigations on thermal and chemical factors. In order to make the analysis of geographical variability the method of simple statistical analysis of wing length was used. Because of sexual dimorphism the measurings of males and females were made separately. The author showalthe real difference between the series of specimens belonging to a group of near populations and that of distant populations. No correlations were found between the variabilities of forewinge and hindwinge. The analysis of variabilities of genital armatures of males and females was based an 843 slides. They did not show any qualities which might be helpful in determining the subspecies. The attempt to find any connections between the variabilities of stallctures of the genital armatures and the variabilities of the external characteristics failed. At the same time it was noticed that on the whole the individual variabilities of the genital armatures of males and of females are definitely smaller in Zygaena carniolica /Swop./ than in a group of other speciee of burnets. The third part contains a discussion on the factors which restrict ar .stimulate the development of populations from the point of view of their part in the shaping of inter-species taxons. The discussion includes the internal and external factors. In the debate on the latter the important meaning of the development of human civilisation was emphasised. Apart, the author gave in outline the characteristics of the variabilities of studied populations within the limits of the geographical distribution of species. While discussing the results it was stated that owing to the great geographical and individual variabilities Zygaena carniolica /Scop./occupies the chief place in the number of the described intraspecies taxons of the Genus Zygaena F. The apparently copioua material, which was gathered in the museums and in the private collections, turned out to be only fragmentary at closer Investigations, Inmeny cases the material did not allow to make the comparisons of the representative series, which is a necessary thing if we have to use the statistical methods or apply the analysis of variabilities of the serial collections. Studies like that often have to be supplied with many years serchee in a field and with experimental investigations. Having such data we may finally reduce the superfluous inter-species taxons. By considering some of the results of ecological and ethological observations we can explain certain processes that shape the variability of burnets. There is an obstacle difficult to overcome against the rapid disappearance of large numbers of stations of this species in the vast geographical regions. The expensive development of human civilisation is the dominating factor in this growing process. It is of importance to seate the directions of geographical variability which depend directly on the influence of the climate. They are defined conventionally as: 1. complex "berolinensis" /in the North-West region of the range ofspecies, which remains under the influence of the Atlantic climate/, 2. complex nviridisn /in the North East region of the range of species, where the Continental climate prevails/, 3. complex nonobrychisn /the South-West and the Southern region of the range of species under the influence of the Continental and Mediterran climate', and 4. complex "tray siens" /in the South-Eastern outskirts of the range of species where the Continental climate prevails/. The division of. the population of Z. caraiolioa /Scop./ in this four complexes has as the aim the precision of chief directions of variability. The denominations of particular complexes are accepted on the basis of the most pregnant taxonomical features of the populations described before in the local biotopee as subspecies. The complexes of these populations in the areas of hundreds and perhaps thousands of kilometers are changing gradually their features in the dependency of the character of climatological and geographical factors. The lines market on the fig. 39 they separate these complexes from technical state point of view do not fix /what is clear/ the graduation of the transition and the mixture of these features. Between those regions there are vast transitional areas. During many years cycles of the mixing up of various climatic influences there was left a strong mark on the populations of Zygaena carniolica /Scop./ in these regions. They chow a lack of stabilization of features and thus provide a big amount of transition forms. This is a hindrance intheattempt to define the distinct geographical borders for the well-distinguished subspecies. The problem is still more complicated by the influence of the local climate from the mountains. These phenomena led once to the tendency to describe "varietal" and afterwards the subspecies, the number of which arose to 118. The presented results of the investigations do not allow us however to make a statement that there are well distinguished subspecies. The practical way of proving it is the example when a man cannot determine the majority of species on the basis of the described subspecies if he is ignorant of the region they come from.
|Other language title versions||Studies on the criteria of taxonomic division on the example of the species Zygaena Carnioiica /Scop./, /Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae/Estudios sobre los criterios de la division taxnonomica en ejemplo de la especie Zygaena Carniolica/Scop/:/Lepidopteria: Zygaenidae|
|Publisher||Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW |
|Publishing place (Publisher address)||Kraków|
|Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)||Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Rolniczego im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1899-3486, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||8|
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