Systemowe ujęcie planowania i urządzania obszarów wiejskich w Polsce
Jacek M. Pijanowski
AbstractThe publication attempts at a comprehensive discussion of issues related to changes in spatial structures in Polish rural areas. It particularly focuses on the system consisting of planning studies, legal and technical procedures, investment projects and legal provisions affecting those changes. The entire scope of these has been put under the term the process of spatial changes. The analysis of this process generally shows its negative impact on the development of rural areas in Poland, due to insufficient coordination of particular planning and operational instruments. This also concerns the system of spatial planning at the level of a community. As a rule, lack of coordination in the process of spatial changes means that each element of the process “produces” uncoordinated and often random “results”, while spatial and settlement structures constitute the sum of these “effects”. This conclusion served as a fundamental statement leading to the definition of the research object of this paper, which aims at proposing systematic changes in the process of spatial changes, which will lead to the “generation” of coordinated “effects”, thus enabling fuller utilization of EU programmes targeted at rural development in Poland. As a result, it was possible to create the system of planning and management of rural areas, whose role will be mainly to ensure that only two “effects” are “produced” as a result of the system: coordinated spatial structures of rural settlements and the agricultural production space. The elimination of randomness in the development of spatial structures in Poland is also a condition of, currently limited but indispensable, mutual coordination of spatial development of developed and agricultural areas. The system of planning and management of rural areas defines the following three elements: coordination phase, implementation phase for rural settlement units and implementation phase for the agricultural production space. The most significant determinant of the coordination phase is a relatively high contribution to non-agricultural economic revival of rural settlement units, which is one of the conditions stimulating the labour market and changes in the agricultural sector. The priority here is making up for infrastructure shortages. Based on the analyses of the process of spatial changes, it was concluded that local planning inhibits these attempts. The core of the problem is that planning does not generally ensure that the development of building areas and provision of necessary utilities are coordinated. This is particularly the case when there is no spatial management plan. As a result, it becomes possible that the areas for residential building are extended especially in a dispersed manner, usually without full technical infrastructure or without taking into consideration the costs of implementation. Quite often this also concerns areas susceptible to flooding. At the same time, agricultural areas are usually completely omitted in spatial planning. In order to change that, the paper suggests the development of new coordination mechanisms that will make it possible to programme spatial development more accurately, even in the face of no planning documents at the level of the community. These mechanisms include the following: infrastructure development plans and plans of development of agricultural production space. Infrastructure development plans should mainly coordinate the development of building and technical infrastructure of rural and urban-rural communities at the level of villages, which would help to maximize the utilization of EU funds. Once the plans are created, areas designed for building development should be extended in a more controlled way, taking into consideration the costs of utilities infrastructure and financial capabilities of communities. On the other hand, plans of development of agricultural production space should act as a new instrument helping to coordinate local spatial planning with regards to agricultural areas. Such a plan would in fact play the role of the so-called agricultural part of the local spatial plan which was given up in the 1990s. The plan would include a comprehensive analysis of conditions and threats for development followed by the delineation of priority zones for future development in every village. As a result, these plans would serve as a solid basis for all decisions related to the properly coordinated development of areas designed for building. The second phase of the system of planning and management of rural areas is the implementation phase at the areas of rural settlement units. It would focus on the challenges related to uncoordinated development of infrastructure and buildings on the existing and new areas designed for building. The core of the problem is that divisions of real estate areas are always allowable and there are no development concepts for these areas. This phase should work as framework legal and technical proceedings that would include the following steps: consolidation and division of areas, development of utilities infrastructure on new real estate areas and issue of work permits. The central role would be then played by consolidations and divisions of land, which make it possible to optimize the course of local roads and water and sewage infrastructure, as well as the creation of optimal spatial patterns for building plots. The full implementation phase in rural settlement entities would be necessary primarily in areas which are characterized by high demand for building plots (suburban areas, tourist communities). Peripheral communities would allow for “selective” use of the components of FR-WJO within the existing urban infill sites. The third phase of the system of planning and management of rural areas is the Implementation phase at the areas of rural production. The main tasks of this phase include the following: support of the restructurisation processes in agricultural space with particular consideration to protection tasks, structured support of land concentration processes in the case of strongly developing farms, coordinated implementation of plans of development of agricultural production space and ensuring the realization of public goals in this space with special consideration to flood protection. Implementation phase in rural areas should work as framework legal and technical proceedings. In this context, it would be necessary to realize the consolidation and exchange of land, post-consolidation management together with land reclamation and activities for the sake of development and protection of landscape and natural conditions. Obligatory document developed before the start of the proceedings should include integrated assumptions for the consolidation of land and water management and protection measures.
|Other language title versions||System approach for planning and management of rural areas in Poland|
|Publisher||Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW |
|Publishing place (Publisher address)||Kraków|
|Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)||Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Rolniczego im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1899-3486, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||6.0|
|Keywords in English||Rural development, development planning|
|Score||= 25.0, 27-07-2017, BookNotMainLanguagesAuthor|
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