Wpływ sposobu zapylenia kwiatów na jakość owoców kilkunastu odmian borówki wysokiej (Vaccinium sp.)
AbstractExperiments aiming to assess self-fertility and yield potential of a dozen or so highbush blueberry eul.tivars cultivated on farms in Poland were conducted in Krakow in the period from 2006 to 2011. The experiments were carried out in two 3-year cycles. The following cultivars were included in the first experiment (2006-2008): `Bonifacy', `Chandler', 'Duke', Patriot', 'Puru', 'Spartan' and 'Toro', and in the second experiment (2009-2011): 'Bluejay', 'Blueray', 'Bonifacy', 'Brigitta Blue', 'Chandler', Jersey', 'Late Blue', 'Northland', Turu', 'Sunrise' and 'Toro'. The experiments were set up in two combinations: in the first combination, insects had free access to flowers, and in the second combination, flowers were self-pollinated by hand. Flowers from both combinations were collected during flowering in order to examine pollen tube growth in the style and the number of successful fertilisations. Microscopic examinations confirmed self-incompatibility of the cultivars studied. The number of pollen tetrads on the stigma was always significantly greater after open pollination. This may be explained by the fact that incompatible pollen tetrads do not attach themselves to the stigma and can be rinsed from its surface, For the cultivars 'Bonifacy, 'Chandler' and 'Toro', the incompatibilities observed in the middle of the style took a form of looped pollen tubes. A successfully pollinated flower of highbush blueberry had an average of 70-2.00 pollen tetrads deposited on the surface of the stigma. Compatible pollen tubes grew down the style as tight 'braids' in the five branches of the canal of the style. The branches corresponded to the arrangement of the placenta with ovules in the ovary. After fruit ripening, the percentage fruit set, weight of berries and number of seeds were determined for each combination. Seeds were divided into two groups: large. well-developed seeds and small deformed ones. It was found that the percentage fruit set. for all the cultivars under study was 30-80% higher after open pollination. The new Polish cultivar 'Bonifaey' displayed absolute self-sterility. The fruit of this cultivar developed as a result of self-pollination weighed 50% lower than that from open pollination. Over 30% of the fruit of the cultivar TonifacY resulting from self-pollination did not reach commercial weight. For all the cultivars, fruit weight was 30-50% higher after open pollination in comparison with self-pollination. Fruit weight is closely related to the number of seeds set. The present study has confirmed this relationship, namely, the number of seeds set was significantly greater for the fruit resulting from open pollination, except for the cultivars 'Brigitta Blue' in 2009 and ‘Bluejay' in 2010. As follows from the results of the study, blueberries of high commercial quality can be obtained when genetically distant cultivars are planted in dose proximity to each other, and when pollinating insects are present on the plantation during flowering.
|Other language title versions||Effect of the type of pollination on fruit quality in several cultivars of highbush blueberry|
|Publisher||Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW |
|Publishing place (Publisher address)||Kraków|
|Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)||Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Rolniczego im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1899-3486, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||6.0|
|Uwaga||Ilość ark.wyd. na podst.informacji umieszczonej w stopce redakcyjnej|
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