Wpływ gradacji kornika drukarza Ips typographus (L.) na realizację zadań gospodarczych i sytuację finansową wybranych nadleśnictw w Beskidzie Śląskim i Żywieckim (RDLP Katowice)
AbstractThe aim of the research was to determine the extent and dynamics of changes in chosen parameters of forest economy that were directly affected by the outbreak of eight-toothed bark beetle. The detailed objectives were to assess the changes in the volume and structure of removed spruce wood, the selling prices of timber, the total and unit costs of silviculture works, wood removal works and measures connected with forest protection against harmful insects, as well as the changes in the outlays on forest roads. The research was conducted in the years 2005–2009 in six forest inspectorates (Bielsko, Jeleśnia, Ujsoły, Ustroń, Węgierska Górka, Wisła) in the Western Beskid Mts., managed by the Regional Directorate of State Forests in Katowice. The total surveyed area was 64 560 ha. The data were obtained from the annual balance sheets of the forest inspectorates. The data concerning costs came from the following accounts: 510 – forest management, 5102 – silviculture, 5102 – forest protection, 5106 – maintenance of forest facilities for general purposes, 511 – timber removal and extraction, 516 – deduction for forest fund. The data concerning incomes came from the following accounts: 710 – incomes from sales of basic activity products, 7011 – timber sales, 740 – internal additional payments. The outbreak of eight-toothed bark beetle was found to cause a significant increase in the total costs of timber removal, silviculture and forest protection against harmful insects in the forest inspectorates under study. The change was due to both a marked increase in the extent of tasks and a considerable rise in the unit costs of forest works. The latter may be attributed to the urgency of the works and their concentration in a short period of time. The bark beetle outbreak had a negative influence on the volume and structure of harvested timber, causing a threefold increase in volume while lowering timber quality (large-sized wood of worst quality dominated in timber structure during the infestation period). Despite a considerably increased supply, the timber prices did not go down, so the incomes of the forest inspectorates during the bark beetle outbreak increased in proportion to the growth in timber sales. When the infestation diminished, the incomes fell to a significantly lower level than that from the period before the disaster. Despite the very high costs borne by forest inspectorates, the financial results were positive. The profitability of spruce timber production suggests that the proportion of spruce in future stands in the Western Beskid Mts. should be kept as large as possible. Another argument in favour of the future spruce production in that region is a positive index of cost coverage by timber sales revenues. When the forest stands infested with bark beetles were removed, a significant increase occurred in the expenses for silviculture works, such as agrotechnical drainage, regeneration and afforestation, soil preparation and weed control. This applied both to the total and unit costs of works. The total costs of silviculture in forest stands affected by bark beetle outbreak showed low flexibility. The costs of timber removal, forest protection and road infrastructure maintenance increased more rapidly than the costs of silviculture. During the bark beetle outbreak, the total costs of forest protection against harmful insects increased the most dynamically of all the costs of forest works. At the same time, an increase was observed in the extent of the protection tasks. Considerable outlays were made on beetle elimination by wood debarking and removing infested trees, and somewhat lower, on the purchase and service of pheromone traps. The total costs of timber removal in spruce stands dynamically increased during the bark beetle outbreak. The growth was highest for wood extraction, whose unit costs increased more than the unit costs of wood felling or wood assortment preparation. It should be underlined that the growth in the costs of timber removal was unavoidable because of the urgency of these tasks. The outlays on road infrastructure maintenance during the bark beetle outbreak increased in proportion to the volume of transported timber. The outbreak of eight-toothed bark beetle led to an increase in the total and unit costs of forest works and reduced the financial results of the forest inspectorates under study.
|Other language title versions||Effect of the outbreak of eight-toothed bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) on the management of tasks and the financial situation of chosen forest inspectorates in the Silesian and Żywiecki Beskid Mts. (Regional Directorate of State Forests in Katowice)|
|Publisher||Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW |
|Publishing place (Publisher address)||Kraków|
|Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)||Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Rolniczego im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1899-3486, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||5.5|
|Score||= 0.0, 01-07-2019, MonograhOrBookNotMainLanguagesAuthor|
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