Pierwiastki śladowe w roślinach pastewnych, dawkach pokarmowych i mleku krów w rejonach oddziaływania przemysłu siarkowego
AbstractThis study was performed in the Tarnobrzeg Sulphur. Basin. (southeastern Poland) to determine: — the level of trace element contamination of fodder plants grown in the immediate vicinity (0-2000 m) of the "Siarkopol" Sulphur Industrial Group in Tarnobrzeg, and — the trace element content of green fodders, hays and silages made of lucerne (Medicago sativa L,) grown in the area reclaimed from a former sulphur mine (bore-hole method), Fodder crops, either field-grown or coming from natural grassland, are basic feeds used in the feeding of animals in this area, mainly dairy cows. The potential contamination of foodstuffs with trace elements, including heavy metals, may have a negative effect on the production, reproduction arid health of live- stock. In this respect, the additional aim of the study was to determine: — the level of trace element intake by dairy cows during either winter or summer feeding, and — the trace element contents of milk from these cows. The levels of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb and Cd were determined in fodder crops grown in three selected areas close to: the storage yard of elementary Sulphur, — the sulphur mine fields (bore-hole method), — the industrial buildings of the fertilizer production plant. The following samples were analysed: meadow green fodders of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd cut, green maize, lucerne, red clover, oat, rye and fixider beet leaves; beet roots, carrots and potatoc tubers; meadow hay and cereal grain, including barley, wheat, oat and rye. The highest levels of trace elements were found in fodder crops grown near the storage yard of elementary sulphur and the industrial buildings of the fertilizer production plant. The plants grown near th.e storage of sulphur contained the highest amounts of Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb. The highest concentra¬nons of these metals were found in. fhd.der beet leaves (Fe — 986 mg kg-1 DM) and in green maize Cu — 7•7, and Zn - 84 mg kg-1 DM), whereas the plants grown near the industrial buildings of the fertilizer production plant accumulated the highest amounts of Mn, Cr and Cd. The highest concentra¬tions of these metals were found in fodder beet leaves (Cr — 367, and Cd —0.M mg kg-1 DM), The lowest levels of all the trace elements analysed were observed in fodder plants grown near the sulphur mine fields, The average Fe, Mn and Zn contents of fodder beet leaves were 177, 101 and 45 mg • k -I DM, respectively, Cu and Cr contents of green lucerne — 6.1 and 1,67 mg ,kg.1 DM, respectively, and Ph content of green maize — 3.3 mg • kg'1 DM. Among root crops, fodder beets an.d potatoes grown near the industrial buildings of the fertilizer production plant accumulated the highest amounts of Mn, Zn, Cr and Ph. The average concentrations of these elements in beet roots and potatoe tubers were (mg • kg-1 DM): Mn - 214 and 164, Zn — 44 and 35, Cr — 0.87 and 0.95, and Pb — 0.35 and 0.30, respectively. The highest levels a Fe and Cu were found in the roots of plants grown near the storage of sulphur: Fe — 806 and 402, and Cu — 4.3 and 3.9 mg • kg`l DM, in fodder beet roots and potatoe tubers respectively. No traces of Cd were observed in any of the samples of root crops. Irrespective of the area of cultivation, the trace element contents of cereal grain were in the range typical of cereals. There was no Pb or Cd in the analysed samples. It is worth noting that the highest, average concentrations of Fe (53-110 mg kg-' DM) and Zn (35-47 mg kg'1 DM) were found in barley, of Mn (77-89 mg • kg-' DM) and Cr (0.2-0.3 mg - kg-1 UM) in oat, and of Cu (2.4-3.7 mg kg-1 DM) in rye. The area of cultivation did not have any effect on the trace element content of cereal grains. Intake of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb and Cd by dairy cows was studied on the dairy farms which used fodder crops grown exclusively near the industrial buildings of the fertilizer production plant. In the period of June to September, the average consumption of Pe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd was 121.0, 268.0, 21..2, 3.8, 1,28, 1.90 and 0.02 mg per 1 kg of dietary dry matter, respectively. In the period of December to March, the cows consumed the following amounts of trace elements: Fe — 239, Mn — 248, Zn — 32, Cu 3.9, Cr — 1.03, Pb — 1.20 mg per 1 kg of dietary dry matter. The intake of Fe and Zn. exceeded several times the requirements of dairy cows, while the amounts of Cu and Zn consumed were much lower than required. The Pb and Cd contents of the diets were low and did nut pose any threat to the health of dairy cows. The levels of trace elements in milk did not exceed the admissible values specified by the Polish Standards. In the period of !June to September, the average Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr and Ph contents were 0.90, 0.29, 2.92, 0.10, 0.14 and 0.05 mg d1.1, respectively. The was no Cd found in any samples of milk. The levels of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd and Ni were also determined in green rudders, hays and silages made of lucerne grown in the area reclaimed from the former sulphur mine. The average concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd and Ni in green lucerne were 166, 53, 6.3, 38.0, 0.2, 0.6, 0.03 and 0.15 mg - kg-1 DM, respectively. Low Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb contents may have resulted from the high percentage of waste lime in the soil (waste lime was used for postmining land reclamation). The levels of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in lucerne hay were by 21, 19, 21 and 11 % lower than in green fodder. The losses of trace elements were much lower (6, 11, 10, 5 %, respectively) when lucerne was ensiled. There was no Cr, Cd. or Ni contained in the samples of lucerne hay or silage. Some Ph was found in lucerne hay, but its level was by 67 % lower than in green fodder. It follows from the results that hay making or ensiling may be a useful way of limiting the consumption of heavy metals by animals kept in the pollution-exposed areas.
|Other language title versions||Trace elements in fodder plants and dairy cow diets and milk in the areas affected by the sulphur industry|
|Publisher||Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW |
|Publishing place (Publisher address)||Kraków|
|Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)||Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczej im. H. Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1233-4189, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||10.5|
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