Ocena przyrodniczego wykorzystania popiołów paleniskowych i komunalnych osadów ściekowych
AbstractFurnace ashes and municipal sewage sludges generated in Poland pose a serious environmental problem which needs to be alleviated by proper management. The issue is the more important because the amount of furnace wastes increases by 15 M tons per year, while the amount of sewage sludges, exceeding 500 thousand tons of dry matter in 2006, is expected to rise to over 700 thousand tons in 2014. Therefore, research was undertaken to explore the potential of such wastes for being used for land-reclamation purposes. The studies were conducted under the conditions of pot and field experiments. Due to specific physicochemical properties, furnace wastes not always have a positive effect on the soil. The application of high doses of furnace ashes alone to the soil may result in its rapid de-acidification and in physicochemical changes which could adversely affect soil fertility. On the other hand, ashes mixed with municipal sewage sludge (at 1:1 weight ratio) constitute a material with very advantageous physicochemical properties. Low heavy metal content and high nutrient abundance, combined with the ability to improve the physicochemical properties of the substrate to which such ash-sludge blends are applied, make them usable in the reclamation of post-industrial areas (biological turfing) and furnace waste disposal sites. Furnace ashes contain a certain amount of heavy metals which is generally smaller than that of sewage sludges. Because of their alkalinity, high water-absorption capacity and poor filterability, furnace ashes may be used for fixing heavy metals present in sewage sludges, and thus for limiting their availability to plants. The application of ashes and ash-sludge mixtures to the soil caused a decrease in the Zn, Pb, Cd and Ni contents of plants but increased their Cr and Cu contents. The rise in the levels of heavy metals in the mixtures of plants cultivated on ash-sludge blends compared to those grown on the soil, however, does not disqualify such plants as forage. The plant yield obtained from the areas reclaimed with the use of furnace ash blended with sewage sludge may also be used for making composts as well as for energy-production and other industrial purposes. Sewage sludges, furnace ashes and their blends favour immobilisation of heavy metals in the substrate, thus inhibiting their transport to the above-ground parts of plants used for biological reclamation. Among the materials examined in the study, municipal sewage sludge contained largest amounts of the bioavailable fractions of heavy metals (FI and FII), whereas furnace ash contained smallest amounts of such fractions. Adding furnace ash to the light soil resulted in an increase in the proportion of the bioavailable fractions of Cr and Cu in the soil and a decrease in that of Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd. Raising the dose of ash-sludge mixtures applied to the soil lowered the proportion of the FI and FII fractions of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd and Ni in the soil, with the decrease being the larger, the bigger was the share of ash in the blend, and increased the proportion of those fractions for Cr. Besides reducing the amounts of wastes damped in landfill sites, the management of sewage sludges and furnace ashes involving their use for the reclamation of post¬-industrial and other devastated areas (landfill sites) would also allow the plants grown on such grounds to utilise nutrients from the wastes. This, however, would require constant monitoring of the heavy metal concentrations in sewage sludges and ashes, and of their potential accumulation in the environment.
|Other language title versions||An assessment of the environmental usability of furnace ashes and municipal sewage sludges|
|Publisher||Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW |
|Publishing place (Publisher address)||Kraków|
|Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)||Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Rolniczego im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1899-3486, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||11|
|Keywords in Polish||mieszaniny popiolowo-osadowe, osady sciekowe, odpady paleniskowe doswiadczenia wazonowe, doswiadczenia polowe, gleby uprawne, podloza uprawowe zawartosc metali ciezkich, rosliny testowe, rosliny motylkowe, kukurydza, wykorzystanie, trawy, plony, nawozenie|
|Citation count*||5 (2020-03-28)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.