Agrobiologiczne i środowiskowe uwarunkowania plonowania upraw nasiennych tymotki łakowej (Phleum pratense L.) i kostrzewy łąkowej (Festuca pratensis Huds.)
AbstractA five-year field trial was established to find out the effects of certain agrotechnical procedures on seed yielding in two meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) cultivars, e.g. ‘Skiba' or 4Skra', and two timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.) cultivars, e.g.: 'Skala' or 'Skald'. The research took place over two Plant Breeding Stations located in Skrzeszowice and Nieznanicc. Soils from the places, where the multiyear field trials were located, differ in their genetic type as well as in their agricultural utility. The degraded blackearth soil formed from loess occurred in Skrzeszuwiee, while the podzolic soil in Niezn anice. This investigation covered two types of experiments. The first one was a fertilization trial performed to examine the effects of soil and foliar feeding on seed yield and grain sowing quality over consecutive years. In this experiment foliar feeding was applied apart from three different levels of soil nitrogen fertilization (0 - No, 60 - N60 and 100 kg N • ha-1 - N100), when soil phosphorus-and-potassium fertilization remained constant (60 kg 13205. ha -1 and 80 kg 1(20 • ha-1). Foliar fertilization included eight treatments, e.g. control, phosphorus, phosphorus with potassium, titanium, zinc, copper, manganese, and complex fertilization (all these elements together). In the latter experiment two different technologies of harvesting grass for seed were evaluated; these included either one-phase harvest or two-phase harvest. Formation of relatively long tillers, inflorescences and flag leaves resulted in an increased weight of seed crop per a field unit. Both dosages of nitrogen (60 - N60 and 100 kg N • ha 1- N1) positively influenced tiller length as well as width and length of an inflorescence and a flag leaf. Rising level of nitrogen within the range from 0 to 100 kg • ha-' induced an increase in seed yield. In a four-year period of use for seed both meadow fescue and timothy grass yielded better when received the higher level of nitrogen fertilization or the complex foliar feeding. Kernel crops from both grass species were dropping with duration of seed plantation usage. Such longer time of usage, up to four years, led to lowered length of generative shoots, inflorescences and flag leaf blades. Lower crops obtained from Nieznanice were due to unfavourable soil conditions in this site (the soil here is lighter). From analysed values of chlorophyll fluorescence it was seen that it is justified to augment nitrogen dose over 100 kg N • ha ' in the cultivation of meadow fescue. Furthermore, as regards timothy grass cultivation it will be appropriate to employ two-phase harvest, whereas in meadow fescue cultivation it should be one-phase harvest. As far as economical considerations are concerned one-phase harvest of timothy grass seeds also would be reasonable in certain situations, because an additional amount of crop obtained from two-phase harvest do not always compensate for higher expenditure.
|Other language title versions||Agrobiological and environmental factors contributory to yielding in timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) seed plantations|
|Publisher||Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW |
|Publishing place (Publisher address)||Kraków|
|Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)||Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Rolniczego im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1899-3486, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||4.7|
|Score||= 0.0, 20-05-2019, MonograhOrBookNotMainLanguagesAuthor|
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