Charakterystyka tatrzańskich gleb nieleśnych wytworzonych ze skał węglanowych
AbstractSoils derived from carbonate rocks, occurring in the Tatra National Park on glades, subalpine forest rocks and in subalpine and alpine belts situated at an altitude of 900-2090 m in different climatic zones, were investigated to identify soil-forming processes taking place in these soils, characterise soil units and evaluate the influence of their chemical properti.es on the accumulation of zinc, lead and cadmium in the soils, Soil samples were taken from 219 rendzina profiles and 22 brown soil profiles. Basic physico-chemical properties were determined in the whole soil material, while micromorphological studies, investigations of the quality and quantity of iron compounds and humic compounds, and determination of the total levels of heavy metals were carried out on samples taken from selected soil profiles. The soil-forming processes taking place in the Tatra non-forest soils derived from carbonate rocks are primarily those of organic matter accumulation and browning. The soils contain the following types of humus: tangelhum-us, alpine pitch moder, rendzina moder and mull. The diversity of soil humus types is mostly connected with a varied moisture content of soils (caused by diversified relief) and with the activity of mesofauna that depends on that content. There. is a strong relation between the activity of mesofauna and the degree of humus decomposition in the investigated soils, especially between the activity of pot worms and the formation of pitch alpine moder, and between the activity of earthworms and the formation of organo-mineral complexes in soils containing mull humus. The dominant plasma structures in the Tatra brown rendzinas and brown soils derived from carbonate rocks are lattisepic and skel-lattisepic. These structures (along with asepic plasma) occur also in leached humous rendzinas, indicating that the browning process goes on in them. Depending on the advancement of the browning process and the degree of decarbonising, the soils under study form the following evolution series: leached humans rendzinas brown rendzinas — brown soils On the basis of the investigations, the following subtypes of rendzinas were distinguished and characterised: lithic initial rendzinas, debris initial rendzinas, organic rendzinas with varieties: tangel- and pitch, huxnous rendzinas with varieties: proper and leached, and brown soils. The above subtypes have their equivalents in the FAO classification and the Soil Taxonomy USDA, but they belong to different large groups (FAO) and orders (USDA). These units were also compared with those used in the German and French soil systematics and by different authors studying mountain soils. On carbonate rocks in subalpine and alpine belts of the Tatras there are soils belonging to all the aforementioned taxonomic units. Most often lithic and debris initial rendzinas and pitch rendzinas can be found, while leached burnous and brown rendzinas are less common, and soils belonging to other systematic units occur only occasionally. Brown soils and proper burnous rendzinas form small patches on south-facing slopes. Tangelrendzinas were formed mainly under bilberry heaths. Non-forest soils derived from carbonate rocks in the Tatra National Park contain considerable amounts of zinc, lead and cadmium, which suggests that they are highly polluted with heavy metals of anthropogenic origin. The ability of these soils to accumulate lead and cadmium and, to a slightly lower degree, zinc is connected with the high level of acid organic matter with a large proportion of the light fraction. The highest heavy metal content is characteristic of pitch rendzinas. High accumulation coefficients of these elements in surface soil horizons and an increase in the metal content of these horizons with increasing altitude as well as a higher concentration of heavy metals in soils situated on NW-exposed slopes indicate that the soils are polluted by industrial dusts. Owing to their high level of humus with a great ion-exchanging capacity, rendzinas of subalpine and alpine belts, expecially pitch rendzinas, effectively protect the natural environment of the Tatras against the spread of heavy metals.
|Other language title versions||Characteristics of the Tatra non-forest soils derived from carbonate rocks|
|Publisher||Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW |
|Publishing place (Publisher address)||Kraków|
|Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)||Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczej im. H. Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1233-4189, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||6.5|
|Citation count*||6 (2016-05-24)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.