Ekologiczne i rolnicze aspekty zachwaszczenia upraw zbożowych i okopowych w województwie krakowskim
AbstractIn this paper, the results of study on cereals and root crop weediness in 32 soil units and different physiographical conditions, represented in all communes of Krakow province are included. On the basis of 1398 phytosociological records, taken after Braun-Blanquet's method in the years 1980-1989, the geographical and historical analysis of segetal flora, the ecological characterization of the segetal habitats were carried out. The infestation of cultivated plants (cereals and root crops) by weeds were qualified and also the most agriculturally harmful weeds species were selected. 229 weeds species were stated in the examined area. The weed communities which occurred in cereals were more rich in species then the ones in root crops. The short-lived weed species compared to the perennial ones were dominant in the segetal flora. Also the local species — apophytes outnumbered the extraneous ones — antropophytes. 151 species, from among all the stated weeds, belonged to 32 ecological-sociological groups according to Hilbig. The most frequently were represented the weeds species from the following groups: Chenopodium album, Cirsium aruense, Tripleurosperrnum inodorurn, Sinapis aruensis, Echinochloa crus gulli, Atriplex patulum and Polygonum avieulare. The T, W, R, N, G values, obtained after the Ellenberg's bioindication method (in cereals), showed that the best segetal habitats occurred in the north of the province — in the rendzinas; the worst ones — in the central part of examined area — in the sandy soils. The degree of cereals weediness (coefficient of coverage) ranged from 1247 to 6488 and from 1988 to 5933 in root crops. The list of most harmful weeds included 52 species in cereals and 47 in root crops. The highly harmful species both for cereals and root crops in the majority of examined soil units were: Stellaria media, Itlyosotis aruensis, Polygonum tomentosum, Cirsium arvense; especially for cereals: Apera spica-venti and Polygonum convoivulus, while for root crops: Chenopodium album and Agropyron, repens. In 6-14 out of the examined soil units the highest degree of weediness both in cereals and root crops occurred the following weeds species: Tripleurospe•mum inodorum., Galium aparine, Viola aruensis, Convolvulus aruensis and Equisetum arvense; in cereals: Galeopsis tetrahit, Centaurea cyanus, Vicia hirsuta, Chenopodium, album, Agropyron repens, Mentha aruensis and Oxalis stricta and in root crops: Galinsoga paruiflora, Poa annua, Polygonum convoluullts, P. hydropiper, P. persicaria, Sinapis arvensis, Rehinochloo crus—golli, Veronica persica and Sonchus nrvensis. The majority of most harmful species (34 in cereals and 24 in root crops) were in not more then five soil units. Their occurrence were connected with the specific habitat conditions, i.e. the sandy soils or the rendzinas. The results of the referred researches can be useful for elaborating of complex weed control methods in the examined area and also for the comparative study on the segetal weed communities formation in the different agricultural conditions, especially in the segetal habitats under antropopressure.
|Other language title versions||Ecological and agricultural aspects of cereals and root crops weediness in the province of Krakow|
|Publisher||Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW |
|Publishing place (Publisher address)||Kraków|
|Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)||Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczej im. H. Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1233-4189, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||8.3|
|Citation count*||2 (2016-02-24)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.