Metale ciężkie w wierzchniej warstwie gleb i w roślinach regionu krakowskiego

Florian Gambuś


The main purpose of investigations presented in this paper was to evaluate the level of heavy metals (Cd. Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the surface layer of cultivated soils, and in red clover from area of Cracow region and also determination of most polluted areas. Materials for investigations were collected in the first half of the mounth of June, 1988. 223 soil samples from the layer 0-20 cm were collected from fields where red clover was cultivated in its second year of cultivation. The samples represent all rural communities of the Cracow voivodeship and districts of the city of Cracow: Krowodrza, Rows Huta and Podgorze. Plant_ material was collec¬ted from the same locations as soil samples. Top parts of red clover were collected during the stage between blooming and first cutting. For the purpose of investigating the correlation between soil properties and accumulation of heavy metals by plants, additional model experiments with oats and sunflower, conducted on 12 soils with and without application of 5 investigated heavy metals. The concentration of investigated heavy metals in the surface layer of cultivated soils in Cracow voivodeship has a wide range. The concentration for following metals ranges: Cd 0,34-3,14 mg, Cu 2,2-44,5 mg, Ni 2,8-50,0 mg, Pb 14,1-1.18,6 mg and Zn 48,8-599,9 mg/kg of dry weight of soil (Tab. 4). Determined concentrations sometimes exceed upper values of ranges accepted for uncontamina¬ted soils and indicate their anthropogenic origin. Areas with soils clearly higher concentration of Cd, Pb and Zn depending greatly an their anthropogenic factors are vicinities of T. Sendzimir Steelworks including adjacent eastern areas and northwes¬tern parts of voivodeship in the neighbourhood lead-zinc mines (Fig. 4, 7 and 8). The amount of soluble forms of heavy metals in soils, extracted with HC1 solution with concentration 1 mol/dma, in their total content is not the same and varys depending on the type of soil, and on the type of heavy metal. Hydrochloric acid extracted greatest amounts of Cd and Pb (76% and 75%), then Cu - 46%, Zn - 35% and the smallest amount of Ni Jet from their total content in soils. The concentration of heavy metals in the clover samples taken immidiately before first cutting, grown on investigated soils, have a little narrower range than their concentration in soils: Cd 0,17-1,10 mg, Cu 1,5-23,6 mg, Ni 0,4-16,3 mg, Pb 2,0-6,0 mg and Zn 21,5-173,8 mg/kg of dry matter of clover (Tab. 9). The evaluation of the concentration of heavy metals in clover from the standpoint of its feeding value, on the basis of the borderline values taken from the literature, indicate that only in few cases it exceed acce7ted norms. Amoung 223 samples, in 2 of them values for Cd, in 5 of them, values for Cu, and in 1 of them value for Zn exceeded acceptable norms (Tab. 19). Area distribution of heavy metals concentrations in clover (Fig. 9-13) does not correlate with their total and soluble in 1 M HC1 concentration in soil. This indicate that uptake of heavy metals by clover is greatly influenced by other soil properties, esspecially by its pH and CEC. With increasing soil pH, concentration of investigated heavy metals decreased in the following order: Ni > Zn > Cd > Cu. Negative effect of high CEC was the gre¬atest in case of Zn and Cd concentrations in clover (Tab. 11). Re¬sults from pot experiment indicate that the influence of soil properties on heavy metal uptake by plants, depends to a great extent on their concentration in the soil, and on the plant spe¬cies (Fig. 14-18). This was more clear in case of high concentrations of heavy metals in soil, and generally greater in case of sunflover as testing plant than in case of oats. Based on results of soil and plant sample analysis, multiple regresion equation was worked out describing concentration of heavy metal in the soil on the basis of its concentration in clover grown on this soil, and its cation exchange capacity. Using these equations the highest total concentrations of metals in soil were calculated, at which the concentration of metals in clover grown on this soil is safe from the standpoint of plant requirements as well as from the standpoint of feeding regnirements for animals (Tab. 20).
Book typeMonograph
Author Florian Gambuś (FoAaE / DoAaECh)
Florian Gambuś,,
- Department of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry
PublisherUniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW [80]
Publishing place (Publisher address)Kraków
Issue year1993
Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczej im. H. Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1233-4189, (0 pkt)
Publication size in sheets3.15
Languagepl polski
Score (nominal)20
Citation count*21 (2016-06-03)
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