Relacja między mechanicznie zagęszczoną glebą a cechami biometrycznymi i jakością hodowlaną jednorocznych siewek sosny zwyczajnej Pinus sylvestris L. oraz buka zwyczajnego Fagus sylvatica L
AbstractIn this paper we present the results of the three-year (2011–2013), field research on the effects of mechanized soil compaction on the quality breeding of annual Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. and European beech Fagus sylvatica L. seedlings. The study was conducted in two measuring variants, i.e., on the soil in the forest and on the soil at forest nursery bed. In each test area, with the use of the constructed device for controlled exert pressure on the soil, we prepared a series of research measurement plots (in triplicate) on which the unit pressure was exerted in the range 50–250 kPa with increments every 50 kPa and control units, without exerted pressure. On two of the three plots, pine and beech seeds were sown, respectively and from the third plot soil samples were collected with the use of measuring cylinders and it was made a cone penetrometer measurement and parameters of soil compaction were determined. Pine and beech seedlings were grown for one year. At the end of the growing season the seedlings from each location were taken along with a root ball, and the soil was removed from the root system by purification and then the morphological traits were measured (the primary root length, shoot length, root collar diameter) along with the parameters of seedlings’ dry weight (dry weight of the root system, shoot and assimilation apparatus). On the basis of the measurements of the soil, it was found that the compaction of the soil characterized by the bulk density and penetration resistance is statistically significantly correlated with exerted unit pressure particularly in 10 cm soil layer (very strong correlation). With the increase of exerted unit pressure increase both penetration resistance and soil bulk density. Increasing soil compaction affected the parameters of seedlings of both species in both variants of measurement, i.e,. on the soil in the forest and on the soil in the nursery. In the forest variant, soil compaction particularly strongly reduced the root collar diameter, total length, the length of the primary root as well as the total dry weight of Scots pine seedlings. In turn, in beech seedling soil compaction decreased the overall length of seedlings, shoot length, and the length of the primary root. In a nursery variant, soil compaction heavily influenced the decline of the main root length, shoot length, total length of the seedlings, total dry weight, and dry weight of assimilation apparatus of Scots pine seedlings, while for beech, increase in soil compaction most impact on reducing the length of the main root of seedlings. For Scots pine seedlings growing in the forest on loamy sand MBFf habitat in a 10 cm soil layer, it can be indicated that the most favorable (optimal) values of penetration resistance (0.92–1.02 MPa) and bulk density (approx. 0.98 g · cm–3) for which the parameters are the shoot length, total length of seedlings and total seedling dry weight were the highest. For European beech seedlings grown in the forest, it could not be determined whether the soil compaction parameters are conducive or not conducive to the growth of seedlings of this species (the extremes of the regression function) over a range of densities. This would indicate that seedlings of the species thrive best soil in the natural state (as in the control plots) or the test density range is too narrow. For Scots pine seedlings grown in the forest nursery bed on loamy sand layer up to 10 cm it can be indicated that the most favorable (optimal) values of penetration resistance (0.65–1.23 MPa) for which the parameters are the length of the shoot, root collar diameter, and the dry weight of the root system are the highest. On the contrary, soil compaction in the range 1.35–1.37 MPa may cause degradation of seedlings, such as the length of the primary root and overall length of seedlings. For forest nursery variant beech seedlings in a 10 cm soil layer the length of the primary root, dry weight, and whole plants were the highest for penetration resistance ranging from 0.92 to 1.02 MPa.
|Other language title versions||The relationship between mechanically compacted soil and the biometric traits and breeding quality of one-year seedlings of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. and European beech Fagus sylvatica L.|
|Publisher||Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW |
|Publishing place (Publisher address)||Kraków|
|Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)||Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Rolniczego im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1899-3486, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||8.25|
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