Produkcja i przetwórstwo mleka w regionie o rozdrobnionym rolnictwie (studium na przykładzie Małopolski)
AbstractThe study concerns the issues of the local and regional development of rural areas which, due to their specific character, are prone to marginalisation, focusing specifically on the condition and the determinants of operation of the dairy sector in the Malopolskie voivodship. Since this region suffers the most pronounced agrarian dispersion in Poland, the dairy raw material comes from a vast number of sources, and the milk-processing industry shows a low degree of concentration. The voivodship has a large proportion of mountainous areas (largest in the country: ca. 22% situated above 500 m a.s.l.) with various types of mountains and foothills. Most mountains lie in the Carpathian part of the voivodship, covering ca. 65% of its area. One of the characteristic features of the Malopolska region is that ca. 55% of its whole area (leading position in the country; 2005 data) has outstanding natural values and is protected by law. Therefore, it is necessary to run the agricultural economy in a rational way, particularly by reducing the intensity of production in the protected zones. All those factors make the agriculture in Malopolska less competitive compared to other parts of Poland. One should also have in mind that the agricultural sector, including the diary sector, fulfils valuable non-agricultural functions such as the social function and the protection of natural resources, thus contributing to the sustainable development of rural areas in the Malopolska region, both at present and in the future. To describe the production potential and economic condition of milk producers in the Malopolskie voivodship, 46 dairy farms specialising in milk production and differing in the size of the cow herd (2-5, 5-10, 10-20 head; year 2004) were investigated. The incomes generated by the farms per hour of unpaid own work did not reach the level of parity payment in any of the three groups. The other subject of the study was the status of the milk-processing sector in Malopolska. Eight dairy cooperatives and two limited-liability companies accounting for over 80% of the volume of milk processing in the vivodship were examined for the organisation of their raw material bases, the production and economic results, and the marketing management over the years 2000-2005. In terms of the annual processing volume, the enterprises were small or medium. The latter material was studied using comparative analysis. The economic situation of the enterprises was assessed by means of economic-financial analysis based on standard indicators, and the differences between the groups of enterprises varying in processing capacity were estimated by cluster analysis. A scenario method was employed to outline the directions of the raw material base restructuring and the consolidation and concentration of processing in the dairy sector under the specific conditions of Malopolska, assuming that the prime objective of the transformation should be to create structures capable of competing on the market, especially on the local market. With this in view, the dairy sector should concentrate on high-quality products manufactured of raw materials from own bases. Starting from an assessment of the status of dairy enterprises and the existing external conditions, two extreme scenarios (optimistic and pessimistic) and a neutral scenario of their transformation were constructed. Organisational changes in dairy enterprises basing on potential leaders in the milk production and processing were also proposed. Seven models of dairy farms were built on the basis of real farms specialising in milk production and selected according to the appropriate scale of cattle production, making it possible to generate close-to-parity income (2007 data), as a basic criterion. The models considered two variants of fodder production: one based on grassland and arable land in different proportions, and the other based on grassland alone, and allow for the production of organic milk. An important consideration was also the geographic location of model farms (some of them were situated in protected areas) which influenced the type and amount of payments under the Common Agricultural Policy schemes. The models of dairy farms presented in the work can serve as a reference when restructuring and modernising the raw material bases for the dairy industry in the Malopolskie voivodship.
|Other language title versions||Production and processing of milk in a region with dispersed agriculture (study based on the Malopolskie voivodship)|
|Publisher||Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW |
|Publishing place (Publisher address)||Kraków|
|Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)||Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Rolniczego im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1899-3486, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||18|
|Citation count*||3 (2016-05-17)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.