Torfowiska w dorzeczu Wisły jako element środowiska przyrodniczego
AbstractInvestigations were aimed to analyse and evaluate the extent of peat bogs in the Wisla river basin and to assess their impact on selected hydrological characteristics of the catchment. As an element of the hydrological network of a catchment, peat deposits play an important part in the natural environment. This study intends thus to inspire hydrologists to carry out more thorough and detailed research into the hydrological role of peat bogs in Polish catchments in close collaboration with peat scientists. Peat bog area indexes (showing the percentage of peat bog area in total area) of various spacial units: provinces, physico-geographical mesoregions, large catchments and partial catchments in the Wisla river basin were established and analysed, with economic and environmental aspects of peat bogs taken into consideration. The calculations of these indexes were based on a peat inventory carried out by the author of this study using the registration method and subsequently supplemented with the results of stratigraphical and morphological investigations. Maps of the various spatial units were drawn by employing the photographical change of scale. In total, 25 007 river basins were analysed in order to establish their peat bog area indexes (13%). The calculations performed for all types of peat bogs and for low peat bogs alone yielded the values of 3.85 and 3.27 %, respectively. As a result of stratigraphical studies carried out mostly in 1982-1995, fourty-eight peat profiles of 18.4 km total length were obtained by drilling 511 holes, out of which 412 were drilled on profiles. To determine the types of peat, about 3000 analyses were made using microscopy and the Tolpa, Jasnowski and Palczyriski classification. Comparison between the results of this study and the literature data shows that the geographical limit of alder swamp-forest peats in the Polish Lowland is wider than scientist formerly believed and goes far beyond the latitude of 50°. It follows from the stratigraphical studies that high peat bogs located in the Bieszczady Zachodnie Mts differ to a certain extent from other Polish peat deposits of this type in their morphology and development. The Bieszczady peat deposits have forest peats in their thin bottom layers, such as Alneti, Alno-Piceaeti, Piceaeti and Pineti. It is therefore suggested to supplement the classification of Poland's peat bogs with the Piceaeti and Alno-Piceaeti peat types. Based on 20 peat profiles, a so-called dynamic curve of peat profile was proposed for fast characterisation and illustration of water conditions that exist during the formation of a peat deposit. This curve shows the extent and intensity of a given peat formation process. Taking into account the hydrological role of peat bogs in a catchment, an attempt was made to analyse interelations between the peat bog area index (ii%) and some physiographical parameters of the catchment, such as the density of hydrological network, the density of catchment and the slope index. Studies included 62 large catchments and 246 partial ones. Linear regression and multiple regression did not show any statistically significant relation¬ships between the investigated variables. Statistical analysis of individual models of interrelations between the peat bog area indexes and the slopes of ground in the valleys of the Biebrza, Ty§mienica, Wlodawka, Huczwa, upper Wkra and upper Liwiec rivers was based on 124 selected partial catchments. The correlation diagrams obtained reveal that the character of these relations vary greatly from very weak to very strong. 39 controlled catchments with peat bog area indexes in the range of 0.08 to 7.79 % were considered when evaluating the effect of the peat bog area index (p%) and total water resources (Zw) on the value of specific low outflow (SNq). Regression analysis showed a significant relationship between the peat bog area index and the specific low outflow (r = -0.54) and an SNQ (r = 0.69). The evaluation of the effect of peat bogs in small non-controlled catchments on the lowest low flows (NNQ) was based on the calculations performed for 3 selected catchments located in the upper Liwiec and Wlodawka river basins. These catchments have similar physiographical parameters but differ cosiderably in the value of peat bog area index (0.00, 12.24 and 51.54 %, respectively). For the catchments selected, the coefficients of variation (Cvqmm) and the values of specific low outflows (SNq) and mean low flows (SNQ) were calculated, and the curves of the probability of occurrence of minimum flows were determined. It was found that in small catchments peat bogs affect the lowest low flows (NNQ) when the probability of exceedance of NNQ falls in the range of 1 to 95 %, while above 95 % this effect gradually decreases. In a dry year the lowest low flow (NNQ) is higher in a peated catchment than in a non-peated one. Therefore, it can be concluded that peat bogs have an effect on catchment alimentation during low-flow periods, which is of great importance to the natural environment.
|Other language title versions||Peat bogs in the Wisla river basin as an element of the natural environment|
|Publisher||Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW |
|Publishing place (Publisher address)||Kraków|
|Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)||Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczej im. H. Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1233-4189, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||18.5|
|Citation count*||6 (2015-07-24)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.