Aspekty nawozowe i środowiskowe przemian i dostępności dla roślin wybranych pierwiastków w warunkach nawożenia różnymi materiałami organicznymi
AbstractThe effect of fertilization on the amount and quality of crop yields is closely related to the properties of soil as the latter determine the transformations and bioavailability of fertilizer components. While these issues have been quite well recognized for the components from mineral fertilizers, the transformations and bioavailability of those from natural and organic fertilizers, and particularly from waste materials, are rather difficult to predict. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the effects of manure, organic fertilizers and sewage sludges on the yields of crops, the fodder value of plant biomass, and the environment. The first stage of the research concerned the dynamics of changes in the levels of some elements in the soil and the changes in the numbers of Salmonella sp. bacteria as dependent on the kind of fertilizer (mineral salts, manure, sewage sludges, and compost made of plant waste) applied to soils with varied granulometric composition (weakly loamy sand, sandy silt loam, and medium silt loam). The course of the mineralization process was investigated in a model incubator experiment. All incubated soils showed the lowest pH values and the largest N-NO.,- increase after the application of mineral salts. The rate of the N-NO3- increase was highest in weakly loamy sand. Irrespective of the kind of fertilizer and soil, the N-NH4+ contents were highest at the initial stage of experiments. The levels of carbon extracted with a mixture of sodium pyrophosphate and sodium base depended mostly on the soil texture and organic carbon content and did not change much during the incubation of soil. With progressing acidification the content of active phosphorus forms in the soil was decreasing, while the levels of mobile zinc and manganese were rising. After 64 days of incubation, the population of Salmonella sp. bacteria declined to the undetectable level. The second stage of the research comprised an assessment of the yield and chemical composition of the biomass of maize and determination of the amount of some elements taken up by maize as dependent on the kind of fertilizer (mineral salts, manure, sewage sludges, and compost made of plant waste) and the granulometric composition of soil. A 3-year pot experiment was carried out on the same soils as the incubator experiment, using two fertilization levels. Regardless of the kind of soil, greater doses of farmyard manure and organic materials had a better effect on the yield of maize biomass than the equivalent doses of mineral salts. No significant differences were detected in the influence on the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations in maize biomass between the organic fertilization and the mineral salt treatment. The treatment with organic materials affected more the sulphur content of plant biomass than the calcium and magnesium contents. Trace elements did not excessively accumulate in the biomass of maize fertilized with organic materials, irrespective of the kind soil or the dose of fertilizer, with the larger amount being cumulated in the plant root system. The next stage of the research aimed at determining the losses of some elements due to leaching as dependent on fertilization and liming. The amounts of elements that could be leached to ground water as a result of fertilization were determined in a 3-year lysimetric experiment conducted on dust medium clay in two series: with liming (+Ca) and without liming (0 Ca). The fertilizer treatments were as follows: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK); nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur (NPK+ S); manure; sewage sludges; and compost made of plant waste. In both experimental series (0 Ca; +Ca), the total nitrogen content of soil filtrates was highest in the treatments fertilized with mineral salts, while the total carbon content was largest in those fertilized with sewage sludges and compost. Among the elements determined, phosphorus was leached in smallest amounts. Apart from nitrogen and carbon, the soil filtrates, especially from the treatments with mineral salts, contained also considerable amounts of calcium and magnesium. The potassium content of soil filtrates did not markedly depend on treatment. Fertilizing with the mineral form of sulphur and introducing this element with organic materials increased its leaching. Among the trace elements studied, zinc had the highest concentration in the soil filtrates. Liming significantly decreased the leaching of all the trace elements from soil. The final stage of the research focused on the direct effects and the after effects of fertilization on the quality of plant yields and some chemical, biological and physical properties of soil. A 2-year field experiment was carried out on a stagnic gleysol soil with the granulometric composition of heavy silt loam using mineral fertilizers (NPK, NPK+ S), manure, sewage sludges, and compost made of plant waste. The yields of spring wheat obtained in the field experiment indicate that organic materials as fertilizers performed less efficiently than the equivalent doses of components supplied in mineral form, with the differences in the macronutrient concentrations in grain and straw being slight. Compared to mineral fertilization, using organic materials increased the protein nitrogen content of wheat grain. The largest amounts of nitrates(V) were contained in the grain of wheat from the treatments with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium applied in mineral form. When sulphur was added, the nitrate(V) content remained at a significantly lower level, similar to that in the treatments fertilized with organic materials. In terms of fodder value, the wheat biomass was deficient in copper, zinc and manganese. The cadmium and lead contents did not exceed the admissible levels. Among the treatments, mineral fertilization resulted in the lowest values of soil pH and highest values of soil hydrolytic acidity. The soils from different treatments varied relatively little in the values of electric conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and the contents of bioavailable nutrients and trace elements. The total nitrogen content of soil decreased, while the differences in the organic carbon content were small. The content of carbon from humic acids in the soil was lower than that of carbon from fulvic acids, however, due to the residual effect of fertilization with organic materials, the contents of both groups of compounds increased in comparable proportions. Compared to the treatment with mineral fertilizers and compost, fertilization with farmyard manure and sewage sludges increased the total bulk density of soil and decreased its total porosity. The number of mezopores grew, whereas the number of macropores in the soil diminished. The values of available and productive water retention were higher in the soil treated with farmyard manure and sewage sludges than in the soil supplied with mineral fertilizers and compost. The research did not provide conclusive evidence to prove that the fertilization applied had an effect on the population of soil microorganisms. The numbers, activity, and differentiation of the physiological groups were strongly modified by the physical and chemical properties of soil, and most probably also by the weather conditions.
|Other language title versions||Fertiliser and environmental aspects of the transformations and bioavailability of some elements in the conditions of fertilisation with various organic materials|
|Publisher||Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW |
|Publishing place (Publisher address)||Kraków|
|Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)||Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Rolniczego im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1899-3486, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||11|
|Citation count*||7 (2020-03-30)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.