Zmienność gęstości oraz podstawowych cech makroskopowej struktury drewna jodły (Abies alba Mill.) w granicach jej naturalnego występowania w Polsce
AbstractThe scope of presented paper is the analysis of relative variability of density and macroscopic features of fir wood, this is analysis of participation of 1st wood as well as annual rings widths on the area of the occurrence of the species in Poland. The following problems were taken into consideration — assessment of relationships between studied wood features and dynamics of trees growth, their life and crown length; — determination of variability of wood features within given population (tree stand), between populations, in connection with factors resulting from spacious differentiation of growth conditions, this is with biotopic type of forest, location above see level and with tree stands origin. On Polish territory runs the north-east border of European limit of the The fir border embraces uplands and mountains of south part of Poland. The Carpathians are the main center of the distribution of the fir (about 25%), on theirs territory, beside of the European beech, the fir is most representativ tree for lower subalpine forest, from about 500 to 1100 m above see level. Taking into consideration origin, from ecological and economical point of view, three klimotypes of fir may be distinguished: Variscan, West-Carpathians and East-Carpathians. On these territories, similarly as in all Central Europe, it is recognized as very valuable but severely threatened species. The studies were can-led out on 50 surfaces, founded in communal range of fir occurrence in Poland. In the first stage of studies the surfaces were founded in secondary forests, mainly forest reserves. Whether in second stage, the surfaces were typed mainly in forests managements, in such a way that they represented proportional surface participation of fir and also represented characteristic for this species biotopes (Tab. 1). On founded surfaces, in every following stage of the work, 20-15 trees were outbored From every tree 2 outborings were taken, at the level of 1.3 m above the ground. In second stage of the work, the outbored trees were precisely measured and classificated according to crown length and their life For individual tree the wood features were measured in 7 sections of outboring, which determined in percentages, starting from the core, 5%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 20%, 20% of the stem cross-section (Fig. 1), Basing on these data the means were calculated for outboring, for tree, surface and so on. The base for the next analyses, concerning both the zones, as well as whole outborings, represented arithmetical means taken from measurements carried out on two outborings. When interdependences between wood features, trees life and relative crown lengths were studied the characteristics of the wood produced in last ten-years life of trees were taken into consideration, The comparative analysis of wood features between surfaces, because of age diversity of studied trees and forest stands, were carried out basing on means obtained from zone of 40 increments. In. case of most trees the zone was l.ayed out between 80 and 120 annual increment. Differentiation of features within individual, it is on stern cross-section, was analyzed according to two aspects: to determine relationship which concern the values of the same feature in different time-intervals and to show main tendencies in range of feature values. The high ratio was shown between values of features both obtained in zones as well as in relation to mean values (Tab. 2 a-d), especially in case of density and late wood participation. These are the features which appear and maintain in stem rather early. Variability of wood features on beam depends on growth dynamics. The type of growth dynamics shows in best way the distribution of annual growth widths on beam. In distinguished three dynamics types (Figs. 2-4) most frequently was represented the type II (above 50% of trees), whether type I occurred mainly in forest reserves. It was documented that growth dynamics influences the wideness of the annual growth widths, but to a lesser degree the wood density (Tab, 3, 4). The essential effect on the wood features exert also: — soil diversity according to humidity, — crown length and trees life. On rich forest sites, with high soil humidity, the fir produces the wide growth ring wood with high rate of late wood and high density. Consequently, these forest sites represent the highest productivity of wood mass. The raising of density and late wood participation is connected with shortening of crown length and also with deviation of trees life. The change of relative crown length, in range from 15% to 65%, causes fall of density of above 116% (Tab. 6). It may he assumed, that 45% of relative crown length represents a limit of value below which clearly occurs acceleration of density and of participation of late wood. According to trees life, higher changes in wood features appeared only in case of trees being highly attenuated (Tab. 7). The studies showed high crucial variability of analyzed wood features, both within populations as well as within the whole range of extend of the species. It was documented that a given trees population embraces the whole range of variability of wood features, from individual to specific. Which indicates high fir adaptation to environmental conditions and disagree with theories postulating genetic devaluation of this species. Basing on geographical variability, it was documented that the Sudetic fir ecotype characterizes itself by fundamental different features, this is by high rate of late wood and by high density. Similar wood features characterize the surfaces localized north to the area of occurrence of Sudetic fire. In eastern localization of the species these features assume lower values. The lowest values of studied features were noted in forest stands localized in upper zone of lower subalpine forest and also on east border of range of distribution of the species (Figs. 6, 7).
|Other language title versions||Variability of density and basic macrostruetural features of wood of fir (Abies alba Mill.) in its natural boundary in Poland|
|Publisher||Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW |
|Publishing place (Publisher address)||Kraków|
|Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)||Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczej im. H. Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1233-4189, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||5.5|
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