Występowanie, rozmieszczenie i stan populacji ssaków łownych w polskich Karpatach
AbstractThe aim of this research was to assess the population size of game mammals in the Polish Carpathian Mountains (Fin. 1). Included are maps showing occurrence as well as an asses¬sment of relative numbers and population size dynamics in a dense network of researched areas (hunting districts and national parks) The study was made possible thanks to the co-operation of several hundred Carpathian hunters Field research was carried out in se¬lected areas of the central region of the Polish Carpathian Mountains. Methods Direct field research was done by tracking animals in the snow along 44.8 km of ma and measured paths. During tracking snow depth was measured. Tracks were marked an arrow on a plan together with a symbol of the species and where it crossed the ma path. Between 1981 and 1991 a total of 1376 km were tracked. Furthermore two questionnaires were involved: Questionnaire I dealt with the presence of various species in the research area It was sent between 1986 and 1990 to the manage¬ments of the hunting districts and national parks as well as to a randomly selected group of 1000 Carpathian hunters. The first part of the questionnaire gave the following possible re¬sponses concerning the occurrence of species: (1) absent; (2) occurs sporadically, not ob¬served annually; (3) occurs consistently but in small numbers; (4) occurs moderately often or frequently. The second part dealt with changes in the population size during the last 10 years' (1) population size increase; (2) population size decrease: (3) no significant charges in population size; (4) was noted 10 years ago, but not at present and (5) was not noted 10 years ago, but is now. Questionnaire II was sent to 1000 randomly selected hunters. They were asked to report both the species and numbers of animals they shot Results (1) An analysis of the occurrence of game mammals on the basis of snow trac¬king During every season tracks of red deer, roe deer, foxes, pine martens, wild boars, hares, wolves and lynx were recorded (TAR. 1). Polecats, wild cats, bears and badgers occurred sporadically. Individual species differed as to their range. This was shown by the various densities of tracks on 3 studied crossings (TAB. 2). The movement of individual species was influenced by the snow cover in varying ways. The fewest tracks with the greatest snow depth was seen in hoofed animals. Roe deer and boar tracks were the fewest when there was more than 20-30 cm of snow, while red deer tracks dropped significantly when there was 40,50 cm of snow, Of the large animals of prey, snow depth did not affect the frequency of lynx tracks while the number of wolf tracks was significantly less when the snow was more than 50 cm deep. Of the smaller species, the relationship between the number of tracks and snow depth was seen most clearly with foxes, minimally with pine martens and did not occur at all with hares (Firs. 4) From the study of tracks it could be seen that the number of red deer tended to decrease between -1 980 arid 1985 but increased slight¬ly later while the number of roe deer increased during these same years but decrea¬sed slightly later. The number of boars tended to decrease between 1980 and 1988 while the number of wolves increased between 1982 and 1991. The number of lynx tracks decreased during the first half of the 1980's and significantly increased during the second half The number of foxes decreased after 1988 while pine martens ten¬ded to increase (FIr3 6, 7). (2) An analysis of occurrence on the basis of animals shot by hunters. During 6 hunting seasons hunters shot 19 species of mammals for a total of 12000 animals (FIG. 8) Of these only 6 species (hare. roe deer, muskrat, fox, red deer and boar) were shot frequently (TAa. 3). From 1983 to 1989 there was a gradual increase in the numbers of red and roe deer shot, and a decrease in hares and foxes (Fin. 9). The numbers of some species shot differed geographically moving toward the east fe¬wer hares, but rnore red deer were shot. In the west boars were significantly less fre¬quently shot, while muskrats were shot more often than in others areas (Firs. 10) (3) Range of occurrence and an analysis of population dynamics. In all hunting dis¬tricts and national parks roe deer, foxes and hares were found, and in almost all areas, martens (pine and stone or one of these two). Boars, red deer, polecats and badgers occurred in most areas. More rare were wolves, lynx and otters. Wild cats, brown bears, raccoon dogs and moose were found infrequently and in limited areas in the Polish Carpathians (Fri 11). The population dynamics of individual species from 1960 to 1990 vaned. the greatest increase in numbers and range of occurrence was seen in brown bears, wolves, moose and raccoon dogs, and of common spe. cies - red and roe deer, There was a slight increase in the population size of martens and muskrats. A slight drop in population size occurred in otters, boars, raccoon dogs and foxes. There was a decided drop in the numbers of hares. Smaller decre¬ase was in the numbers of lynx, badgers and wild cats. (Fin. 12). A detailed description of species (Chapter IV) included occurrence in the Polish Carpathians, • tendencies in population dynamics: • hunted; tracked; • present population size; • data from literature concerning the occurrence of game in the Polish Carpathian Mountains and surrounding territory Maps present the occurrence of individual species (Fin. 14-29). From this research it can be seen that in the Polish Carpathian Mountains all family spe, cies of large and medium mammals, with the exception of mountain hares, can be found (TAB. 4) For most species the population sizes were favourable. There were no endangered or disappearing species (with the possible exception of the wild cat). Three species (moose, European bison and beaver) could be found again after many years of being all sent. Some species spread out in area and increased in numbers (TAB. 5). It is the authors opinion that the future is promising for these species for several reasons, including the en vironmental protection policies of the many national parks and the International Biosphere Reservation of the ''Eastern Carpathians".
|Other language title versions||The occurrence, distribution and population of game mammals in the Polish Carpathian Mountains|
|Publisher name (outside publisher list)||Wydawnictwo Akademii Rolniczej w Krakowie|
|Publishing place (Publisher address)||al. 29 Listopada 46, Kraków|
|Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)||Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczej im. H. Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1233-4189, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||5.15|
|Keywords in English||distribution, game mammals, Polish Carpathians, population dynamics, questionnaire data, snow tracking|
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