Wartość selekcyjna jodły pospolitej (Abies alba Mill.) polskich pochodzeń w okresie juwenilnego wzrostu w zróżnicowanych warunkach siedliskowych

Kinga Skrzyszewska

Abstract

The paper presents an evaluation of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) selection value during its juvenile growth i.e. till the age of 20. Research was conducted on six experimental areas of All-Poland id PL 86/90 provenance test, which involved 99 silver fir provenances depicting species natural distribution in Poland. All of them were assembled into 15 provenance regions [Bałut et al. 1990] and represented 6 maternal Forest Basic Material fir regions and 8 common FBM fir regions [Załęski et a]. 2000, 2003]. Due to high ability of silver fir adaptation to different conditions of experimental areas, and long observation period (20 years), results of survival and height analysis allow to make reliable genetic validation of recent phenotypic selection. The choice of regions where relevant silver fir populations are present was based upon results of index evaluation of populations' selection values and its tendency with age in different site conditions. A set of characteristics covering soil and climatic factors on experimental areas was used to describe correlation between ecological factors and variability of fir adaptative traits. Evaluation of tested populations stability according to method of Finlay and Wilkinson [1963] took into account genotype x age effect, and for uniform group of populations at the age of 20 genotype x area location effect. To asses relation between Carpathian fir silvicultural traits and its genetic variability an isoenzymatic [Mejnartowicz 2004] and tcrpene markers [Skrzyszewska 2001, 2002b] research results were used. Evaluation of silver fir selection value allowed to use effectively genetic gain while choosing Forest Reproductive Material for establishing new plantations. It also allows approving selected provenances as a source of reproductive material for plantations set in a whole natural silver fir distribution in Poland. Provenance, provenance region and experimental area conditions significantly affected silver fir survival and height increment during juvenile growth. Following provenances: 86 Powroinik (S4decki Beskid Mts.), 76 Mogielnica, 77 Kudicai (Gorce Mts.), 69 Berest (Low Beskid Mts.) and 29 Ulow (Rortocze) were surviving well on all Jd PL 86190 experimental areas. Several provenances such 28 Kruglik, 68 Malastowa, and 73 Ukleina (in Bielsk); 30 Ulow, 82 Czorsztyn (in BaligrOd); 68 Malastowa (in Zwierzyniec) survived also well but only on individual experimental areas. However an interaction survival x experimental area localization was insignificant in the othogonal part of Jd PL 86/90 experiment. Following provenances: 86 Powrotnik (Sadecki Beskid Mts.), 27 Hedwiiyn, 29 U16w, 31 Rybnica (Rortocze) and lowland population 00 Pelezanka showed outstanding and stable height increment on all Jd PL 86/90 experimental areas. Several other provenances also performed well but only on some experimental areas. They were: 05 KarpOwka (in Stary Sacz, Bielsk and Baligrod experimental areas), 22 Jarugi, 23 Siupy (in Bielsk and Baligrod), 28 Kruglik (in Bielsk and Zwierzyniec), 30 Ulow (in Baligrod and LagOw), 07 Ciechostowice and 24 Zwierzyniec (in Lagew and Zwierzyniec). All those provenances were progeny of maternal stands, which showed satisfying vitality, good quality and favorable growth. According to the results obtained, a permanent improvement of silvicultural value can be achieved trough selection during juvenile growth based on high survival and height heritability. Among surveyed soil characteristics only soil fertility index and soil p11 affected significantly an adaptation of silver fir populations to environmental conditions. Climatic factors showed much uniformity on all experimental areas and their influenced insignificantly the differentiation of adaptative traits of tested populations. Populations from Beskid Sadecki Mts., Bilgorajska Highland, Rortocze, and Polish Lowlands showed good stability of adaptative traits, while most populations from Stone Mts., .Bieszczady, Zywieeki Beskid Mts. and Sudety Mts. revealed poor survival and height connected with traits' high stability. Several populations showing very high selection value and reacting positively to planting in different site conditions were selected as elite ones. There were 00 Pelezanka (Polish Lowlands); 29 Ulanow, 31 Rybniea (Rortocze); 69 Berest, 86 Powroinik (Beskids) and 77 Kud/on (Gorce Mts.). Some selected silver fir population from Carpathian Piedmont and Bieszczady Mts., as well as Bilgorajska Highland and Rortocze performed well but only locally in mountainous Carpathian conditions. in general the progeny of Carpathian provenances on all Jd PL 86/90 experimental areas showed much better selection values than those from Sudety Mts. Most of provenances achieved and sustained theirs selection value between 8th and 11th year of age. Selection value of silver fir populations constantly differed between experimental areas despite of site conditions. Thus provenances plasticity should be taken into account while selecting populations for out-planting in the frame of range of the silver fir natural distribution. The results of test studies mostly supported current border of silver fir maternal regions for forest basic material, however slight adjustments were suggested to enlarge zones for forest reproductive material transfer. However, evaluation of genetic polymorphism and genetic distance parameters partially supports differences in selection value between Carpathian and Sudeten provenances of silver fir. Carpathian silver fir provenances are characterized by a high silvicultural values more than twice the observed heterozygosity and much greater allele richness that Sudeten provenances [Mejnartowicz 2004]. Presented results may he useful in revising the seed regionalization and in modifying rules for silver fir forest reproductive material transfer. They can also help to optimize selection and breeding programmes for silver fir in Poland.
Other language title versionsSelection value of Polish silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) provenances during juvenile growth in different site conditions
Book typeMonograph
Other categories ROZPRAWA_HABILITACYJNA
Author Kinga Skrzyszewska (FoF / DoGSaNF)
Kinga Skrzyszewska,,
- Department of Genetics, Seed and Nursery Forest
PublisherUniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW [80]
Publishing place (Publisher address)Kraków
Issue year2013
Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Rolniczego im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1899-3486, (0 pkt)
Vol500
No377
Pages313
Publication size in sheets15.65
Internal identifierWL/M/20/2013WL/5/10
Languagepl polski
Score (nominal)25
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