Wybrane czynniki środowiska w drzewostanach sosnowych południowej części Dzielnicy Łódzko-Opoczńskiej i ich wpływ na przyrosty radialne drzew
AbstractResearch carried out in the years 1998–2008 covered pine stands growing on coniferous forest and mixed coniferous forest sites in the southern part of the Łódzko-Opoczyńska Province (Łódzkie Voivodeship, central Poland). This area is potentially within reach of pollutant emissions from the Bełchatów Power Station, the Europe’s largest producer of electric power from brown coal. The investigations comprised observations (monitoring) focusing on some chemical properties of the forest environment and the dynamics of phytocoenoses and forest stands, combined with dendrochronological analyses and an examination of the effects of the environmental properties being studied on the width of tree rings. The research aimed to define the levels of pollution caused to the pine stands under study by some gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO2, O3) and substances delivered by atmospheric precipitation (including pH, SEC, concentrations of chosen ions, wet deposition in throughfall and bulk precipitation); determine some chemical properties of soils and the contents of mineral components in the assimilatory apparatus of pine; establish the dynamics of phytocoenoses; and investigate the health condition as well as the dendrometric characteristics and volume increment of the stands. The other objective of the research was to determine the radial growth rhythm of the pine stands over their whole life-span, with special consideration given to the monitoring period (1998–2008), in order to determine the effect of the exogenous properties of the environment on the radial increments of pines. The elements of the environment, considered in the study, were monitored in 10 pine stands (PM). The dendrochronological analyses covered the latter stands and, additionally, 23 other stands (PP). Sample plots were located in all the largest forest complexes of the region, lying at a distance of 4–40 km north, east, south or west from the Bełchatów Power Station. The pine stands showed average dendrometric traits and health condition for the forest site types and age classes they represented. The traits of the stands were also typical of the development phases of pine forests under a clear-cutting management system. In the years 1998–2008, all the stands showed a favourable dynamics of growing stock volume, radial increment (especially in the first 5 years of this period), DBH distribution and biosocial structure, and exhibited a low mortality of trees. The phytocoenoses were appropriate for the plant associations and forest site types they represented, and did not display degradation symptoms. Most of the characteristics of the soil subtypes found in the research area (Haplic Podzols, Gleyic Podzols, Albic Arenosols, Cambic Arenosols) had values within the range of their natural variation, i.e. the one typical of forest stands not exposed to pollution or facing only weak anthropogenic pressure. As shown by the chemical analysis of pine needles, the levels of most of the elements studied were within the optimal ranges during the whole period 1998–2008, being the most stable in the case of nitrogen and phosphorus (among basic nutrients) and zinc (among microelements). The contents of sulphur in the needles of pines from the research area were not increased, compared to the background levels, and were markedly lower than in industrialised parts of Poland. In 1998, the needles of pines on some sample plots showed elevated contents of lead and cadmium, and in 2008, of iron and copper. In the 11-year research period, a consistent decreasing trend (indicating an improvement in some elements of the environment) was observed for the concentration of sulphur dioxide in the ambient air; the proportion of acid rains; the contents of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and, most importantly, lead (Pb) in the soil; and the contents of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in pine needles. In addition, the health condition of the stands under study clearly improved, compared to the initial state of 1998. An important part in shaping the state of the forest environment in the research area was steadily played by such factors as the concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) in the ambient air, as well as the wet deposition of acidic anions (S-SO42–, Cl–) in winter, and of basic cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+) in the vegetation season. The wet deposition of nitrogen (NO32, NH4+) delivered by atmospheric precipitation to the forest environment varied widely during the research period; its increased values in some years contributed to substantial levels of this component being found in the environment. Some features of the forest environment on permanent monitoring plots (such as acidity of upper soil horizons, base saturation, dominating role of calcium among the readily available components, constant delivery of considerable amounts of basic cations by atmospheric precipitation, and increasing proportion of rains with alkaline reaction) indicate that the southern part of the Łódzko-Opoczyńska Province is under a slight influence of alkalising emissions. The observations carried out in the years 1998–2008 suggest that the properties of the forest environment in the research area are not connected with the direction of the movement of pollutants from the Bełchatów Power Station located in the centre of this area. The contributing factor is an inflow of air masses from southern directions as it significantly increased the concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen dioxides in the ambient air, decreased the pH values of atmospheric precipitation, and increased the wet deposition of sulphate sulphur. Hence, the quality of the forest environment in the southern part of the Łódzko-Opoczyńska Province depended largely on the influence of pollutants coming from outside the research area. The pine stands growing in the southern part of the Łódzko-Opoczyńska Province displayed a great consistency in the chronologies of annual radial increments, in terms of both short- and long-term variability due to anthropogenic factors. As suggested by the marked long-term rise in the tree-ring widths of pines in the last two decades of the 20th century in the whole research area, the growing conditions for the pine stands have noticeably improved over the years 1980–2000, which may be attributed to decreased pollutant emissions in Poland, compared to previous years. This also indicates that the opening of the Bełchatów Power Station in 1981 did not adversely affect the growth dynamics of the stands. The short-term growth response of pines, observed in the years 1998–2008, shows that the most important factors positively influencing the tree-ring width were as follows: an increased precipitation total in the vegetation season and higher average temperature of air in the late winter (February–March) of the year of ring formation, as well as a wet early autumn (September–October) in the preceding year. The significant factors limiting the tree-ring width included an elevated concentration of SO2 in February and a warm early autumn (September–October) in the year of ring formation, as well as an increased wet deposition of nitrogen in spring (April–June) in the preceding year. The results of the observations conducted in the years 1998–2008 indicate that the short-term variability of radial increments in pine was co-determined by meteorological factors (atmospheric precipitation, air temperature) and factors connected with the level of environmental pollution (SO2 concentration, nitrogen wet deposition).
|Other language title versions||Chosen elements of the environment in pine stands in the southern part of the Łódzko-Opoczyńska Province, and their impact on the radial increments of trees|
|Publisher||Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW |
|Publishing place (Publisher address)||Kraków|
|Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)||Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Rolniczego im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1899-3486, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||20.4|
|Score||= 25.0, 12-07-2019, MonograhOrBookNotMainLanguagesAuthor|
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