Ciągi dni z opadem w polskich Karpatach

Tadeusz Zawora

Abstract

The paper presented is a characteristic of the phenomenon of alternating precipitation days in the Polish Carpathians. It is based on the material relating to daily precipitation totals from 38 weather posts in the territory of the Carpathians. Use was also made of the descriptions of meteorological conditions of the vegetation of cultivated plants and especially of signals on the overhumidity of soils following the periods of more prolonged precipitation as well as of the calendar of synoptic situations, of air masses and of fronts. The investigations covered the growing season (April — October) of the period of 20 years from 1961 to 1980. The sequence of precipitation days is a period covering at least 3 days running of precipitation. In the longer lasting precipitation sequences there could be single days without precipitation. Periods of the most frequent long lasting precipitation are the third pentade and the last decade of April, the second pentade and the last decade of May, the fourth pentade of June and the fourth pentade of July. Every second year at meteorological stations at higher locations precipitation sequences occur with a duration of one week or insignificantly longer. The probability that for most meteorological posts especially at lower locations the duration of precipitation sequence is 4 weeks and for posts at highest locations 6-7 weeks is 1%. At height above sea-level rises an increase is observed in the growing season of April — October by 43.2 mm for 100 m of altitude of precipitation totals due to precipitation sequences. Instead, with an increase of geographical latitude by 1° that total drops by 19.1 mm. The share of continuous rains in the global precipitation total is slightly above 80% in the lower portions of the Carpathians and up to 90% in the higher portions. Sequences of precipitation days constitute together with sporadic one-day breaks without precipitation as much as 72.9% of the total number of precipitation days for the period in question. With an rise of altitude by 100 m the number of days due to continuous rains increases by 0.78% while with a rise of geographical latitude a decrease of the share of continuous rains in the total number of days is 1.1% for 1° geographical latitude. On average, it is observed for the growing season of April — October 10-12 sequences of precipitation days with a duration of 8 days in the lower portions of the Carpathians and 12 days in the highest portions. As compared with the West-Masovian Lowland characterized by the lowermost precipitation totals and their lowest frequency there are on average two sequences of precipitation days in the Carpathians in the growing season and the number of days due to precipitation sequences is higher by 20 in the lower Carpathians while at an altitude of 1100 m it is already higher by 29 days. Sequences of precipitation days are most frequent for the synoptic situation Be (cyclonic through), 16,8%, and with the advection of air-masses from west in the cyclonic situation We, 12.0%. The longest rainy periods occur during the advection of old polar-maritime air-masses. The highest precipitation, with daily totals amounting to 20 mm in the lower portions and more than 30 mm in the highest portions occur during the advection of air from the northern direction. During summer, especially in July and August, higher frequency of precipitation is observed in anticyclonic situations, respectively 38% and 42%, which points to a high share of convection-derived precipitations within the air masses. On average, convection precipitation totals in sequences of precipitation days may be put at 314 of the average frontal precipitation totals. Convection precipitation occurs on a smaller area than does frontal precipitation. There are no differences between the height of daily precipitation total associated with warm and cold front. Sequences of precipitation days generally create troubles for field work and for harvesting crop plants, but in 29% of their duration they improve soil moisture as well as conditions of cultivated plants especially following droughts. This is specially true of short-lasting sequences of precipitation days.
Other language title versionsSEQUENCES OF PRECIPITATION SPELLS PERIODS IN THE POLISH CARPATHIANS
Book typeMonograph
Other categories ROZPRAWA_HABILITACYJNA
Author Tadeusz Zawora (FoEEaLS)
Tadeusz Zawora,,
- Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Land Surveying
PublisherUniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW [80]
Publishing place (Publisher address)Kraków
Issue year1995
Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczej im. H. Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1233-4189, (0 pkt)
No201
Pages68
Publication size in sheets5.2
Languagepl polski
Score (nominal)20
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