Produkcyjność i przeciwerozyjna skuteczność płodozmianów w warunkach górskich południowo-zachodniej części Beskidu Niskiego
AbstractSo far no investigations have been conducted in Poland in which anti-erosion efficiency of crop rotations expressed by the amount of surface runoff and soil losses would be estimated simultaneously with their productivity expressed by various measures. Many researchers have pointed to the urgent necessity of carrying out such studies, particularly in mountain areas. These investigations were aimed at: 1) estimation of the productivity, energy efficiency and economic aspects of three crop rotations and cut grassland depending on their position on the slope; 2) estimation of the anti--erosion efficiency of the studied crop rotations and cut grassland, expressed by the amount of surface runoff and soil losses, depending on the position on the slope; 3) determination of the effect of the studied crop rotations and cut grassland on the chemical characteristics of soil in selected zones. A two-factor experiment was carried out in 1992-1995 at Czyrna near Krynica. As a first factor three zones on the slope were considered, differing in their gradient and soil properties: a) upper zone between 570 and 560 m a.s.l. with 16.6 % gradient, b) middle zone between 560 and 552.8 m a.s.l. with 11.6 % gradient, and c) lower zone between 552.8 and 545 m a.s.l. with 12.4 % gradient. The nutrient content of soil and the depth of humus horizon varied according to slope gradient, being lowest in the upper zone and highest in the lower zone. As a second factor three crop rotations and a clover-grass mixture on cut grassland were investigated, i.e.: crop rotation A: 1) fodder beets, 2) oats, 3) faba beans, 4) winter triticale; crop rotation B: 1) fodder beets, 2) oats undersown with red clover, 3) red clover, 4) winter triticale; crop rotation C: 1) fodder beets, 2) oats undersown with a mixture of red clover and timothy, 3) and 4) mixture of red clover and timothy. Water erosion was examined using Slupik's bag catchers on 10 m2 plots (5 x 2 m). The productivity and anti-erosion efficiency of crop rotations increased with rising proportion of clover or its mixture with timothy they contained. The clover-grass mixture on the cut grassland was characterised by a higher productivity (33-240 %) and anti-erosion efficiency (11-14 times); it was also more effective both in energy terms (2-3 times) and in economic terms (27-34 %) than the applied crop rotations. In the upper zone lower main yields of dry mass (by 6-7 % on average) and greater soil losses (by 49-53 %) were noted than in the other zones. The anti-erosion efficiency of crop rotations decreased with increasing number of days per year during which the soil was not covered by plants. This interrelation is described by the regression equation y = 0.166x + 9.783. According to their increasing capability to prevent erosion, the cultivated crops may be arranged in the following order: fodder beets, oats, faba beans, winter triticale, red clover and its mixture with grasses. The anti-erosion efficiency of these plants, tested in the conditions of simulated rainfall in the flowering or maturity phase, was 4-6 times higher than in the initial phases of their growth. The examined crop rotations caused a slight increase in the levels of organic carbon (by 0.16 %), total N (by 0.019 %), available potassium (by 1.7 mg K20/100 g soil) and phosphorus (by 1 mg P205/100g soil) in the soil as well as increased its pH. Applying fertilisers and using a clover-grass mixture on the cut grassland caused a slight decline in available potassium (by 0.2 mg K20/100 g soil) but did not lead to a rise in pH. The obtained results may be useful in the rational management of those mountain areas which are currently being utilised as arable land, and which after the planned exclusion of marginal land will still be destined for plough cultivation.
|Other language title versions||Productivity and anti-erosion efficiency of crop rotations in mountain conditions of southwestern part of the Beskid Niski Mts.|
|Publisher||Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW |
|Publishing place (Publisher address)||Kraków|
|Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)||Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczej im. H. Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1233-4189, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||7|
|Citation count*||6 (2016-05-08)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.