Wpływ wieloletniej uprawy wierzby krzewiastej (Salix viminalis L.) na właściwości fizyczne, fizykochemiczne i chemiczne oraz aktywność enzymatyczną gleb ornych
AbstractSince the end of the twentieth century, the use of energy from the renewable sources (RES) has increased, with a view to limiting climate change as well as protecting the natural environment. Commonly, the RES are treated as inexhaustible, as they replenish themselves through natural processes. Agriculture also participates in their production. Due to the increasing interest in growing energy crops, it seems reasonable to examine and understand positive and negative aspects of the impact of long-term basket willow cultivation for energy on the properties of arable soils. The paper attempts to determine the impact of the age of basket willow plantation on the quantity and quality of organic matter, the content of bioavailable components, sorption properties, and enzymatic activity of soils in arable land that is temporarily excluded from agricultural use. To this end, the properties of the soil in the S. viminalis plantation were determined and compared to the properties of arable soils occurring in the immediate vicinity. Based on individual soil parameters and synthetic indicators – MGea (soil quality enzymatic indicator), SQI (soil quality index), and SEF (modified soil quality evaluation coefficient) – the quality of soils for different land uses was evaluated. Soil samples were collected from 12 studied objects. In each studied object, the soil was sampled from the S. viminalis plantation, and from reference fields of arable (cultivated) land. All of the plantations were established on arable land, where previously the same type of cultivation was conducted as on the reference soils. The following assumptions were made: the soils in the given object consist of the same parent material, they have a similar texture, and they are located in the areas that share a similar terrain, whereas their current properties are shaped mainly by the differences in land use. Samples for testing were taken from genetically distinctive soil horizons up to a depth of 150 cm. In addition, samples were taken from the surface horizons of soils subjected to different land uses, from 4 layers: 0–5 cm, 5–10 cm, 10–15 cm, and 15 cm to the natural limit of the horizon. In the samples taken from all soil horizons, the following features were tested: texture, pH, hydrolytic acidity, content of basic exchangeable cations, organic carbon and total nitrogen as well as bioavailable forms of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. In the particular layers of the surface horizons, and in the subsurface horizon,the fractional composition of humic compounds and the dehydrogenase,urease, and invertase activities in soil were determined; also, in the surface and subsurface horizons, the bulk density of the soil was measured. Based on the results of the conducted research, it was found that S. viminalis willow plantations contribute to changing the properties of arable soils that had been temporarily excluded from arable use, which is most evident in the horizon of 0–10 cm. The impact of S. viminalis willow on the tested properties in surface horizons,and the overall surface and subsurface horizons was less intensive. The size and direction of the changes were related to the age of S. viminalis plant. After 4–5 years from the establishment of the plantation, most of the tested properties (enzymatic activity, bulk density, pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, exchangeable calcium and potassium, bioavailable phosphorus and potassium, ratio of humic acids carbon to fulvic acid carbon, degree of humification) in S. viminalis soils deteriorated compared to the reference soils in arable land. After 12–14 years, some properties have improved. There was an increase in the activity of enzymes and the content of Corg., Nog., and bioavailable K; and often also the content of K+ and bioavailable Mg. The change of land use from arable land to willow plantation contributed to the increase in organic carbon pools, reduction of density, increase of enzymatic activity and acidification as well as deterioration in the quality of soil humus, compared to the reference soils in arable land. There was a decrease in the total nitrogen content as well as bioavailable forms of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium in the soil profiles. However, the assessment of soil quality, using the synthetic indicators of MGea, SQI and SEF, points out to the overall positive direction of soil environment transformation occurring in the future under the influence of basket willow S. viminalis.
|Other language title versions||Effect of long-term cultivation of basket willow (Salix viminalis L.) on physical, physicochemical, and chemical properties as well as enzymatic activity of arable soils|
|Authors role note||Janina Gospodarek - redakcja naukowa|
|Publisher||Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rolniczego im Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW  [Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie]|
|Publishing place (Publisher address)||Kraków|
|Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)||Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Rolniczego im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1899-3486, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||10.5|
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