Zmienność sosny zwyczajnej (Pinus sylvestris L.) i hodowlana wartość jej polskich proweniencji w warunkach siedliskowych beskidu sądeckiego

Janusz Sabor


Scotch pine is one of the most important species of the Carpathian Mts, covering 16.7% of forest areas. Pine stands form 3 diferentiated zones of compact occurrence here: lowland pine, the so-called "wdziary", and relict islands of mountain pine. The "wdziary" pine is a lowland and submontane population of this species, resettling the slopes of mountains. In the Carpathians, chiefly in areas formerly in agricultural use, there also occur numerous forecrop stands (fig. 1). In spite of a considerable economic importance, above all in the Carpathian Plateau, neither the genetic evaluation of these populations nor analysis of adaptation and breeding values of pine stands, artifidaily introduced in mountain habitats, are adequate. The aim of the present work was: - to determine trite variability range of growth, and of morphological, and physiological traits of 16 most valuable lowland and montane Scotch pine provenances in the Polish distribution range of this species, tested in montane conditions of a provenance test site (620 m above sea level) at Polany near Grybów in the Sacz Beskid range, - to assay the breeding value of lowland and autochthonic mountain provenances, - to evaluate genetic properties of the tested Scotch pine provenances, using marker substances (monoterpenes) (fig. 2), and assay the feasibility of using "early tests" in a selection program, developing a program for the preservation of the most valuable genotypes, and establishing of Scotch pine in the Carpathian Mts. The investigation covered the period of 25 years, beginning in 1966 when professor E. Chodzicki established a test plantation. The scheme of the experiment is a given in fig. 3, characteristics of trio investigated pine provenances being given in fig. 4 and tables 1,2. The variation of their traits was estimated using analysis of variance with one-way or double classification and the method with two factors in a non-orthogonal cross design with interactions. The stand volume was determined on the basis of Bruchwald, Naslund Anderson's formulae. Analyses of the technical properties of wocd covered the determination of width of annual increments, the share of late wood, anicoo, vnntional density determined using Olesen's method. the 10-year period of growth 1978-1989 being taken into consideration. The diversity the content of nutrients in needles of the investigated pine provenances was determined using Evers and Sacking's methods. The content a! monoterpenes in the bark of sample trees was determined usinilge chromatography. In analyses of morphological traits the most important characters of Scotch pine provenances were taken into consideration. the degree of trunk inclination, the evaluation of branchineas, at the seize of needles. The intensity of pine flowering was expressend the percentage of trees in total of blossoming trees in the test pin and in the population of grafts of selection trees. The morphological evaluation of pollen and the cone structure according to Praudin'a classification were also included in the test. The share of genetic diversity was determined using an index of total diversity expressed as the so-called repeatability or the operational ho. The identification of genotypes was carried out, using Squillaces method, the content of Δ- and β-pinene and Δ3-carene in the bark of sample trees being taken into consideration. The adaptation capabilities were estimated according to Finlay-Wilkinson (fig.5). The value ΔG is determined by the product of i = (M-Mo)/S standaridized selection difference, where M - denotes the mean value of a trait in the provenance, M, - the mean value of the trait in the whole pine provenance, and S - the phenotypic standard deviation, while h2 determined the repeatability coefficient. The parameters of the following traits were used as the basis of computing of the above selection indices: in index I-1 -.0ercentage of deadwood at age 21 and mean height of trees before thinning, in index I-2 - percentage of deadwood at age 21 (before thinning), And mean height of trees (after thinning, in index I-3 - survival as above, and mean theoretical height of trees at age 25 after thinning with the selection thershold of 4 = x + is of tree height in the provenance. For the above traits the coefficient lac was determined on the basis of analysis of variance and the economical value E according to current priced catalogues of breeding works. In the case of characteristics of significant importance for early tests and for the so-called intermediate selection (weight of 1000 seeds: age of parent trees) their correlation with growth and morphological traits was determined. The results concerning the survival variation in the investigation period 1966-1991 are given in tables 3-7 and figs. 6,7, the variation of mean breast high diameters (diameter at the root neck) and tree height of the investigated provenances in tables 8-19 and figs. 8-15, and the tree volume and growing stock at age 25 in tables 20,21 and figs. 16-20. The evaluation of technical properties of wood, based on measurements of annual growth rings, percentage of late wood, and conventional density of sample trees of all 16 provenances in the test are given in tables 22-25 and fig. 21. The varried level of micro- and macroelement content in pine needles as depending on the age of needles and on the provenance are given in tables 26-30 and figs. 22-32. The mean percentage of monoterpenes in the total content of these compounds in the bark tissue of pine provenances, among other compounds of limonene, pheleandrene and terpinolene and the most important genetic markers Δ- and P-pinene and Δ3-carene are presented in tables 31-35. Geographical variation in the percentages of these compounds in the investigated pine provenances and the interaction effect of provenances in relation of this trait are given in figs. 33 and 34. Table 36 gives the mean degree of distance of the trunk from perpendicular and tables 37-42 present the mean numbers of shoots of the last year whorl in the successive years of growth (index of branchiness), the mean number of living whorls, the length of needles, the intensity of fruiting, and the morphological diversity of pine cones 1 in the investigated provenance population. fig. 35 gives the ranking positions of provenances according to the increasing numbers of shoots in the last whorl, fig. 36 and 38 the geographical variation in the branchiness index and in the mean length of needles (above and below the diameter) and fig. 37 the ranking positions of provenances according to the mean length of needles, Table 42 and fig 39 contain data concerning the distinguished forms of pine cones of the tested provenances and tables 40 and 41 results of analysis of variance concerning morphological traits and significance of differences between provenance groups determined for the index of branchiness. The variation in the time of flowering culmination of the tested pine provenances and the mean size of pollen grains are give in tables 13-46 and fig 40 The share of the genotype in Iota. diversity of the tree height, traits of wood, content of mineral components in needles, and particular morphological traits are determined in figs. 41-43 while figs. 44-50 and tables 47 and 48 present the identification of genotype carried out on the basis of analysis histograms concerning the distribution of mean relative proportions of α- and β-pinene and Δ3-carene and the frequency of trees with a small or large Δ -carene content in pine bark. The significance of the investigated intertrait correlations and autocorrelations of mean heights was tested in tables 49-51. Values of the elaborated selection indices of the provenances, based on units of standardized volume (Iv) are given in table 52, and of indices I-1, 1-2, and 1-3 covering the survival and height of trees at age 21 and 25 in tables 53 and 54. The evaluation of the adaptation properties of Scotch pine provenances in the habitat conditions of the test plot, using Finlay-Wilkinson method (tables 55,56, figs. 51-53) and the equations of linear regression (tables 57,58 and figs. 54,55) confirm high adaptation capabilities of lowland populations, chiefly from NE Poland (the so-called Mazurian pine). The basic adaptation properties (survival, growth traits) of the tested pine provenances, representing the entire range of occurrence of this species in Poland, distinctly depend upon the geographic situation (latitude) of parents stands, defined by latitude, and vegetation cycle. With increasing latitudes the mean height of pine provenances grew and the dependence of this trait was significant in the entire period of the study. The obtained results permit the formulation of the following conclusions: 1. Analysis of variance of morphological, physiological, and growth traits, and the evaluation of the genotype of 16 investigated provenances from the distribution range of this species in Poland in mountainous habitat conditions of the test plot at Polany near Grybów (the Sącz Beskid range) showed a distinct racial differentiation of lowland pine provenances and autochthonous montane population. In the 25-year period of of the investigation northern and lowland pine provenances were characterized by a smaller percentage of deadwood, better growth parameters, and a greater volume and growing stock than montane pines. The population of lowland pines was characterized by the specificity of traits of wood and nutrition metabolism expressed by the level of macro- and microelements in needles. In northern provenances of pines (Mazurian, 1-Karsko, and 11-Lipowa populations) wood density exceeded mean values, the level of phosphorus content in needles was below that in mid-Poland and montane provenances, and the mean percentage share of a- and 0-pinene was greater and that of Δ3-carene smaller than the monoterpene total in the bark of sample trees. The lowland provenances were also distinguished by a more abundant branchiness and much shorter needles 2. The results obtained in the Polany near Grybów provenance test showed a continuous range of geographical variation of deadwood and growth traits of lowland pines and a distinct significant correlation of these traits with latitude, as depending on the climatic determinism of parent stands. Montane provenances of a different genetic structure are characterized by a different range of the geographical variation of almost all investigated traits. 3. The analysed pine populations most strongly discriminated the traits concerning the amount of deadwood, heigth and diameter, conventional wood density, K content, and level Δ3-carene in needles, and also the indicies of branchiness, length of needles, and the configuration of growth traits, followed by wood properties. It seems, however, that it would be possible to develop more favourable combinations of traits, characterized by a greater discriminative power of a provenance. 4. Monoterpene compounds, chiefly Δ- and β-pinene and Δ3-carene are significant biochemical and genetic identifiers of both lowland and montane provenances of Scotch pine in Poland. AL the present stage of the investigation it was observed that content of compounds Δ-pinene was reduced by half in populations of trees with a "small' carene content while the [C-/C-1 genotypes occurred in different groups of provenances irrespective of breast high diameters of trees Montane pine provenances from Nowy Targ (15) and Piwniczna (16) were characterized by a smaller content of Δ- i β-pinene and a relatively larger one of Δ3-carene in the tree bark. The effect of “provenance x years" interaction with regard to monterpene content in needles did not significantly affect the valuation of provenance diversity in the test. 5. The values of breeding indices, determined on the basis of deadwood percentage and tree height at age 20-25 -year, should be taken into consideration in the choice of provenances for the production of regeneration material in mountainous territories. In conditions of the Sacz Seskid region the elaborated indices showed the best performance of lowland pine provenances: Lipowa, Bolewice, Supratl, Rozpuda, Dittek, Tabórz, and Karsko. The indices of breeding value showed that the lowland pine provenances which represented partial populations of Pomeranian and Mazurian pine, confirmed the good survival and growth in montane conditions in the entire 25-year period of the investigation, exceeding these values in autochthonic submontane pines. 6. In the accepted principles of the renegeration economy in mountainous regions, particularly in areas after agricultural land use or as a forecrop, lowland pine provenances from northern Poland should constitute a larger percentage, as having high adaptation and breeding quolities, while the share of autochthonic poorly growing montane provenances whould be reduced. 7_ The spectrum of application cf the obtained results in practical selective breeing in the S4cz 13eskid area and in the entire Car pathian region may be determined using functional dependences between the mean annual temperatures, altitude above sea level, and exposition of the site. These dependences determine the theoretical range of pos sibilities in establishing plantations of regeneration material from selected provenances in the Carpathians without economical risks. 8. There occurs the possibility of including the vegetative progeny of selection trees of the best provanencee growing in the provenance test at Polany near Grybów in the Carpathian Sacz Beakid range, and the possibility of applying "early tests" and methods of indirect selection, whith use the correlation dependences beetwen the weight of 1000 seeds and age of parent trees and the adaptation and morphological traits.
Book typeMonograph
Author Janusz Sabor (FoF)
Janusz Sabor,,
- Faculty of Forestry
PublisherUniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW [80]
Publishing place (Publisher address)Kraków
Issue year1993
Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczej im. H. Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1233-4189, (0 pkt)
Publication size in sheets10
Languagepl polski
Score (nominal)20
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