Koncepcja znormalizowanej metody wyznaczania obszarów zabudowy

Tomasz Salata

Abstract

The problem of determining the boundaries of built-up areas had only been rarely addressed in subject literature. Scientific research more frequently dealt with issues pertaining to the classification of shape, form, density, or regularity of buildings. In contemporary literature on the subject, a lot of attention has been devoted to the study of changes taking place in the zone of impact of built-up areas and anthropogenic expansion. In the preliminary chapters of this monograph, a review of literature was presented in a synthetic manner, illustrating state of the art and body of knowledge in relation to the subject matter, mainly in the context of European countries. In addition to outlining the body of research by Polish scientists, the conclusions from the work of international researchers were presented, from such countries as: Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, France, United Kingdom and Japan. It was discovered, among other findings, that between 1920-198(1 the problems of built-up areas and their development were addressed mainly by geographers, much less often by specialists in the fields of geodesy and cartography, and the research had been conducted using topographic maps, developed in such a way that they ensured merely an average accuracy of the obtained results. Nowadays, in the era of working with digital data, it is possible, to acquire accurate spatial information much faster, as well as to process that data repeatedly in order to receive multivariate models and results. In the present work, much attention was said to the application of accepted models for standardization techniques, applicable in the procedures of database concept creation. This notion was stressed in the monograph, whereas the standardization was implemented at the stage of developing the conceptual assumptions for the method of designating built-up areas, processing source data, and testing the effects of the method in order to assess the quality of the output data. Both the technologies and the results were evaluated, and the latter were examined for the occurrence of outliers, extreme cases, possible artefacts, and homogeneity of generated spatial objects, independently of the diversity of the tested objects or areas. An essential part within the content of the present work is the legal analysis, performed on the basis of keywords appearing in the contents of legal acts, ordi¬nances, court decisions, resolutions and other documents of this nature.. For the keyword of "zabudowa" ("built-up areas" / "development"), along with their declension forms in the LEX system, the query produced 1005 results for all legal acts collected in the system, of which 341 records had the status of "binding acts", 587 were "expired acts", 9 were "single acts", 60 were "individual acts" and 8 were "non-normative acts". For the above, a logical interpretation of the legal acts was applied, directed towards geometric reconstruction of objects representing built-up areas and their derivative features. The analysis concerned the identification of all provisions in Polish legislation that could explain the concept of built-up areas and built development. It was found that the above nomenclature repeatedly refers to the description of built-up areas in relation to buildings and structures, development areas with regard to areas where buildings are located as well as built-up areas in the wider context - in the sense of many individual built-up areas, forming clusters of various spatial character. The term "development sites" also occurs fairly often, and less so, the term "construction areas", which concerns spatial policy at the municipal level. The legal analysis showed that in most cases no attempt to define the terminology had been made, and only in Iwo cases were there attempts to determine the geometrical extent of the building area in the context of the actual existence of buildings. The above-mentioned provisions were subjected to geomet¬ric tests and the inaccuracies were indicated, resulting from a rather general word¬ing contained in the Act of February 3, 1995, on the protection of farmland and woodland, and in the Regulation of the Minister of Interior and Administration of November 17, 2011, regarding the database of topographic objects and the database of general geographic objects, as well as standard cartographic studies. The objective of the research was to present the methodology for unequivocal determination of the extent of built-up areas in the form of polygonal objects, based on geometric data of buildings, according to geometrically and mathematically defined criteria. Having defined the manner of designating built-up areas we are able to proceed to unambiguous interpretation and application in practice of the provisions of the above-mentioned legal acts. Developing the definition of the extent of built-up areas provided the basis for calculating the parameters characterizing the obtained results in an exhaustive manner, including the density of development, the degree of the units' coverage with built-up development, scatter¬ing and irregularities; and it also made it possible to propose a formal classification of the aforementioned parameters based on the results of the geostatislical anal¬ysis. This task was carried out in a research area covering 1064 cadastral precincts, located in the districts (poviats) of: Kielce (including the city of Kielce), Staszow,Busko, Tarnow (including the city of Tarne4), Dabrowa, and Gorlice. The studied area includes 70 municipalities, of which 3 are urban municipalities (Kielce, Tarnow and Gorlice), 23 are urban-rural municipalities, and 44 are rural municipalities. The data sets used in the study came from the State Register of Borders (PRG or Panstwowy Rejestr Granic), Topographic Data Base (BDOT1Uk) and the Register of Land and Buildings (EGiB). The assumptions for the developed method for determining built-up areas used an approach represented by Lienau in 1970, and described in the article "Terminological scheme for the geographical definition of rural settlements" in the Review of International Geographical Literature of the Polish Academy of Sciences, with an assumption that residents of particular settlements are connected with each other if the distance separating their buildings does not exceed 150 meters, which corresponds to the limit of audibility of the human voice. Based on this, the Delaunay method was applied, in order to create an irregular grid of triangles whose vertices were aligned with the corners of the buildings. Triangles, whose sides were longer than 160 meters, had been removed. The remaining ones constituted the built-up area. The above method provides unambiguity and repeatability, which means that even when we use various approaches or techniques, the same results will always be obtained. Determination of the exact outline of the built-up area made it possible to calculate the basic parameters that can be used in order to describe its characteristics. These parameters include: surface area and length of the perimeter of the built-up area, the number and surface areas of buildings inside the built-up area, as well as the number of built-up areas located within administrative units such as the cadastral precinct or a municipality. We have proposed and defined the concept of development density, which is the ratio of built-up development to the surface area, as well as the index of the unit's coverage with built-up areas, which is the percentage. of all built-up areas included in the given unit relative to its surface area. These are indicators that facilitate the comparison between various units based on standardized data. The monograph attempts to apply the method developed by Clark and Evans, also known as the nearest neighbour index analysis, which consists of a probabilistic approach to the issue of dispersion and irregularity. Much attention was devot¬ed to this particular topic in the monograph, because these parameters arc very important in the explanation of point spatial phenomena. The proprietary method for the determination of dispersion has been proposed, being the average distance measured in each direction, between the buildings, along the arms of the Delaunay irregular triangular mesh. The acceptable length has been fixed as double. the dis¬tance limit set at the stage of determining built-up areas, that is, 320 meters. This facilitates an unequivocal determination of the dispersion within the given cadastral unit, as well as indicating the differences between neighbouring units. The coefficient of variation was used as a measure of irregularity, calculated as the ratio of standard deviation and the average distance between the buildings, which produced a non-determined comparable value of the index for any given administrative unit. The expediency of the method and the developed indicators may be appreciat¬ed in works in the field of local planning and spatial development. This monograph proposes norms for built-up development, calculated in a broad research field, helpful in defining design parameters regarding the provisions of standards for biologically active areas or the density of built development, as well as in the fields of construction, architecture and urban planning — where spatial information systems are still insufficiently used, due to the tendency to selective, point-focused studies.
Other language title versionsStandardised method concept for determining the boundaries of built-up areas
Book typeMonograph
Other categories ROZPRAWA_HABILITACYJNA
Author Tomasz Salata (FoEEaLS / DoSPaLA)
Tomasz Salata,,
- Department of Spatial Planning and Landscape Architecture
PublisherUniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW [80]
Publishing place (Publisher address)Kraków
Issue year2019
Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Rolniczego im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1899-3486, (0 pkt)
Vol549
No426
Pages172
Publication size in sheets12
Languagepl polski
Score (nominal)80
Score sourcepublisherList
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