Badania nad wpływem mikroklimatu komór klujnikowych na jakość piskląt kurzych lężonych w aparatach halowych
AbstractThe experiments aimed at presenting the role of hygiene as emental factor in battery housing incubators and its effect organisms of baby chicks hatched during the technological pro line. Particular attention was given to physiological iodic consequences seen in immunological effects in chicks. nvironon the duction es and Incubators, electronically controlled, create far the embryo a hatching milieu, which is the resultant of interaction of embryo metabolism and ambient microclimate. Every technological error results in unfavourable incubation milieu and disturbs the process of embryogenesis with all its consequences. That is why our studies included the hatcher incubation period of chicks of both general performance and meat-type in hatchers Becoto Master-factory and Atlas ISO Ratans Poldrob, considering all stages of hatching. In every measurement series the basic hygienic parameters were determined in the hatcher on the two levels of the mobile frame for hatching trays. They were as follows: temperature in °C, relative humidity in %, vapour presure in hPa, "dry" cooling power in eal/cm2, concentration of CO2 in %, U3 in mcg/m , 02 in N and pH of air. Experimental groups were chicks free every hatching stage, staying in the hatcher from 2 to 37 h. The in vivo studies of the experimental chicks included measurements of internal body temperature, pH of mucous membranes of the beak cavity and eye conjunctivae, as well as body weight. After bird decapitation they were dissected and their sex was defined as well as the weight of bursa Fabrici. In addition, by radioimmuno assay (RIA) the levels of plasma thyroid hormones: T3, T4 and rT3 in nmol/1 and corticosterone in nmolil were determined. Also the glucose level in mmo1/1, total protein and immunoglobulins in g/1 as well as haenatocrit count were determined using routine examinations. Immunological studies consisted in vaccination of experimental chicks against NO and determination of the titre of HI antibodies, Complex studies of the microclimate in the hatcher during the process of chicks hatching provide the basis to conclude that air surrounding in the third (last) stage of hatching can be a stressing factor not only for the hatching chicks in that time but also for these hatched earlier and remaining there to the end of incubation. As the most essential microclimatic stressors can be considered first of all unfavourable thermal conditions in hotchers as well as a hygienically deteriorating milieu of hatching. A thermal stress experienced by the studied chicks is manifested by 'increased levels of glucose and corticosterone side by side with a prolonged time storage. Decreased levels of iodothyronines may be associated with a defensive response of chicks organisms, forced to lower the systemic metabolism under stress conditions. The levels of the titres of HI antipodes, generated after vaccination against HO, differed depending on the stage of hatching and time of keeping chicks in the hatcher. The low titres of HI were produced by the chicks which were the last to be hatched during the incubation process and by those kept longest in the hatcher. It was a characteristic. thing that immunological reaction did not occur in anoxpected percentage. IL seems of importance, because under production conditions all these groups of chicks, used in experiments, are assigned usually to one common group, the so-called "day chicks", removed sumultaneously from the hatcher. However, the results obtained are indicative of various levels of acquiring active resistance and susceptibility to diseases, even after proper vaccination. The chicks, which are the last to hatch, face the most disadvantageous surrounding and without a preliminary adaptation their quality deteriorates. Likewise, in the chicks hatched in the I and II stages of the hatching and staying to the end of the incubation process in the at Cher the good quality attained earlier, deteriorates, which results' in the poorer biochemical indices and negative effects after immunization. Resignation from the chicks, hatched in the last hours of stage I11, which to all appearances increases hatchability, will allow to eliminate the weakest birds of poorest quality and, consequently, to obtain for production healthy chicks, thus securing high standard of their health condition.
|Other language title versions||STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF MICROCLIMATE IN HATCHERS ON THE QUALITY OF HEN CHICKS IN BATTERY HOUSING INCUBATORS|
|Publisher||Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW |
|Publishing place (Publisher address)||Kraków|
|Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)||Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczej im. H. Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1233-4189, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||3.5|
|Citation count*||4 (2016-03-21)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.