Środowiskowe i produkcyjne skutki wyłączenia gruntu ornego z polowej produkcji roślinnej oraz przywracania ugorów i odłogu do użytkowania rolniczego

Joanna Puła

Abstract

The study was conducted from 2004 to 2009 at the Experimental Station in the Department of Soil and Plant Cultivation at the University of Agriculture (presently the Department of Agrotechnology and Agricultural Ecology) located in Mydlniki near Krakow, Poland. The experimental field is located in the southern part of the Fifteenth, Czestochowsko-Kielecki District at a height of 224.6 m a.s.l. (N 50° 5', E 19° 51'). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of excluding arable land from agricultural use (1-, 2-, 3-years-long fallow period with a different way of conservation of these areas and an area of waste-land) on floristic composition and soil seed bank. The value of post-fallow stands for growing winter wheat, faba beans and maize, depending on the soil tillage method, was estimated. An assessment of the floristic composition and soil seed banks of the {allowed areas was also carried out. The yield and weed infestation level of winter wheat, faba beans and maize, grown on the field restored to cultivation after fallowing, with the use of ploughing or reduced tillage was tested. In addition, the physical and chemical properties of the soil were tested. The total area of the field experiment, including the spatial separation of the other crops, was approximately two hectares. The spring barley was harvested from the field designed for the experiment, in July 2004. This was followed by shallow-ploughing and harrowing, and then the field was excluded from cultivation. In the spring of 2005, this whole area was divided into three parts. A different conservation method was designed for each of these three sections: (1) mowing — the mowed fallow, (2) applying the herbicide — Roundup 360 SL (a.i. glyphosate) at a dose of 31 • ha-1 (1080 g • ha-1) — the herbicide fallow and (3) no treatments — the waste land. The conservation treatments of fallows (mowing and herbicide) were applied once per each year, in June—July. The total area of each of the fallows and the wasteland was 5,400 m2. Al the end of June 2005, all the conservation treatments were performed. In autumn of the same year, one-third of each fallow and of the wasteland area was liquidated and tilled, in order to introduce three crops. The remaining two-thirds of each area was fallowed. From 2006 to 2008 the rest of the fallowed land was analogically restored for cultivation, and herbicide or mowing were used on the fallowed areas in the summer each year. On the part of the field being restored annually for the growing of crops each year it was one third the total area of the experimental field), a field experiment with four replications was established. Three crops were sown each year, according to the following system of crop rotation: faba bean (cv. "Fitus', determined type of growth, 45 seeds 1 m-2) — winter wheat (cv. ‘Turnia', 400 seeds 1 m-2) — fodder maize ((•. `Wilga', FAO 190, 8-10 seeds 1 m-2). Each of the restored field was additionally differentiated by the soil tillage method (plough or non-plough, where plow was replaced by the cultivator). The doses of N : P205 : K20 (kg per hectare) fertilizers were as follows: 120 : 70 : 100, 30 : 60 : 100 and 100: 120: 100, for winter wheat, faba bean and maize, respectively. The nitrogen fertilization was applied as 34% of ammonium nitrate, potassium — 60% of potassium salt and phosphorus — 40% of superphosphate. The nitrogen fertilization in winter wheat, at a dose of 140 kg N • ha-1, was used as the divided doses: 40 kg N ha-1 in the autumn before sowing, 50 kg N ha-1 in the spring during tiling phase (BBCH 22-24) and 50 kg N ha-] in the shooting phase (BBCI I 31-33). In the other crops, nitrogen fertilizers were applied at the full dose before sowing. In all crops, phos¬phorus and potassium fertilizers were applied in the autumn, during the seed—bed preparation (winter wheat) or during pre-winter tillage operations (faba beans and maize).Data were analyzed separately for each crop in each of the three years of the study. Analysis of the data showed that the floristic composition of fallows and the wasteland depended on the duration of the field exclusion. The mowed and the herbicide fallows contained between 21 and 23 fewer weed species, as compared to the waste land. Domination of some weed species depended on the way that the fallow was conserved, i.e. on the mowed fallow dominated: Elymus reports (L.) Gould., Solidago sp, Rumex obtusifolius (L.), on the herbicide fallow-dominated: Arternisia vulgaris (L.) Raf and Epilobiurn ciliaturn, Holum lanatus (L.) and Solidago sp, on the waste land dominated: Artemisia vulgaris (L.), Cirsiurn alvense (L.) Scop., Epilobium (Actium (L.), Elyrnus repens (L.) Gould and Solidago sp. The crop species grown in this experiment displayed a different sensitivity to the quality of the stand, depending on the type of the fallow which was expressed by their yield and weed infestation. In summary, the herbicide fallow was a better stand for growing winter wheat and faba bean, than the mowed fallow and the waste land. On the other hand, maize was not responsive to the forecrop. Reduced tillage caused increased weed infestation, especially in the faba bean canopy. In the soil conditions studied for this experiment, the physical properties of soil, such as bulk density, relative humidity, capillary water capacity and porosity, generally were not influenced by the tillage method, but were differentiated by the depth of the layer of soil. The content of soil nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and organic carbon in the arable soil layer depended on the type of fallow conservation and the soil tillage; in the crop stands grown after the herbicide fallow and on the ploughed stand, their amounts were significantly lower. On the basis of this study, it can be concluded that the most suitable crop to grow, using the fallow method, is maize. The best way to keep the land temporarily excluded from agricultural use, and ready for restoration and re-cultivation is through the application of total herbicides (the herbicide allows).
Other language title versionsEnvironmental and Productive Consequences of Excluding Arable Land from Crop Production and the Restoration of Fallows and Waste Land for Agricultural Use
Book typeMonograph
Other categories ROZPRAWA_HABILITACYJNA
Author Joanna Puła (FoAE / DoAaAE)
Joanna Puła,,
- Department of Agrotechnology and Agricultural Ecology
PublisherUniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW [80]
Publishing place (Publisher address)Kraków
Issue year2013
Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Rolniczego im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1899-3486, (0 pkt)
Vol519
No396
Pages147
Publication size in sheets7.35
Internal identifierWRE/M/12/2013WRE/2/34
Languagepl polski
Score (nominal)25
Citation count*
Cite
Share Share

Get link to the record


* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.
Back
Confirmation
Are you sure?