Wpływ agrotechniki i zanieczyszczeń przemysłowych na aktywność biologiczną gleb oraz ich właściwości fizyczno-chemiczne i mikromorfologiczne
AbstractThe biological activity of soil defines its fertility and is responsible for the transformations of organic matter and for making nutrients available to plants. Soils are exposed to various external influences, both natural and anthropogenic. By regulat¬ing the physical and chemical properties of soils and stimulating soil biological activity, such factors influence their functions in the ecosystem. The present study was designed to determine the biological activity of soils influenced by two kinds of anthropogenic factors: (i) agrotechnology with special regard to varied fertilisation, and (ii) pollution with heavy metals. The effect of agricultural treatments on soil properties was investigated using arable soils from the long-term field experiment with different variants of moderate fertilisation in Skierniewice, and soils from under the ground and foil-tunnel cultivation (including intensive fertilisation and plant protection) of vegetables in Wawrzericzyce near Krakow. The impact of longlasting pollution with heavy metals on soil properties was assessed using soils from the area directly affected by an industrial plant emitting these metals to the atmosphere (vicinity of the steel plant ArcelorMittal in Krakow), and soils from the area of occurrence of zinc-lead ores which is also polluted with the fall of dusts emitted by the zinc smelter (region of the Mining and Metallurgy Plant "Boleslaw" in Bukowno near Olkusz). To determine the biological activity of soils, the activity of soil fauna and its excrements forming soil aggregates were studied, and the soil properties closely connected with the soil fauna activity, such as porosity of the surface layer, content of non-decomposed plant residues, and humus accumulation, were investigated. The study included also determination of dehydrogenase activity which both reflects the activity of living microorganisms in soils and provides information on the impact of environmental conditions on the soil microbiological activity. The activity of fauna in the studied soils was found to be largely related to both factors, i.e. agrotechnology and soil pollution with heavy metals. Compared to uncultivated soil, it increased considerably in soils that were systematically treated with farmyard manure alone or farmyard manure supplemented with mineral fertilisers, but decreased in those subjected to mineral fertilisation or pollution with heavy metals. The heavy metal pollution of soil reduced the macrofauna activity, which was reflected in the small proportion of channels bored by these animals, on the one hand, and in the accumulation of loosely packed strips of slightly humified organic matter whose presence is connected with the occurrence of large, horizontal pores, on the other. Soil cultivation and the application of farmyard manure caused an increase in porosity, while mineral fertilisation, deteriorating the soil structure and increasing the amount of non-aggregated material, contributed to its decrease. Fertilisation, and especially the systematic application of farmyard manure, substantially increased the accumulation of non-decomposed organic residues in the soil. This was caused by the fact that manure brought big amounts of organic matter to the soil, while high rates of mineral fertilisers, enhancing yielding, led to larger amounts of post-harvest remains being left in the soil. Pollution with heavy metals had varied effects on the accumulation of non-decomposed plant residues. As a rule, it decreased the produced biomass and restricted its transfer from the surface deep into the soil profile. However, hampering the macrofauna activity, it slowed down the processes of organic matter decomposition, which resulted in the accumulation of non-decomposed or slightly decomposed organic matter in the surface layer of heavy-metal-polluted soils. Intensive agricultural treatments, especially intensive mineral fertilisation, decreased substantially the dehydrogenase activity in the soil — even 10-fold in comparison with the enzyme activity in similar unfertilised and uncultivated soils. Only systematic application of farmyard manure slightly stimulated this activity. For soils with neutral reaction or with high resistance to degradation, long-lasting pollution with heavy metals did not reduce the dehydrogenase activity. By contrast, the activity of dehydrogenases in acid soils was considerably impaired by zinc pollution, this effect, however, was lessening with time. Under the conditions of the research, agrotechnology produced a much stronger effect on the biological activity of soil than heavy-metal pollution did. Cultivation and different fertilisation treatments, much more than pollution with heavy metals, stimulated or inhibited the properties characterising the soil biological activity.
|Other language title versions||Impacts of agro-technology and industrial pollution on the biological activity and physicochemical and micromorphological properties of soils|
|Publisher||Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie, MNiSW |
|Publishing place (Publisher address)||Kraków|
|Book series /Journal (in case of Journal special issue)||Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Rolniczego im. Hugona Kołłątaja w Krakowie. Rozprawy, ISSN 1899-3486, (0 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||10|
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