Suitability mixture of biomass ash and municipal sewage sludge for reclamation

Agnieszka Kowalewska

Abstract

The suitability of mineral and organic waste for reclamation of post-industrial areas, waste landfills, slag heaps, dumping grounds appears to be substantiated on account of the content of macroelements and microelements. Application of bottom ash and municipal sewage sludge leads to improvement of soil properties and provides plants with indispensable nutrients. The aim of the conducted research was to determine the effect of botttom ash, sewage sludge and their mixtures on yielding and chemical composition of a plant mixture and on the basic physicochemical properties of soil. The research was conducted under laboratory conditions and under conditions of a field experiment, and then the fertilizing value of these wastes in the environmental aspect was determined. It was established that, as compared with the municipal sewage sludge, the biomass ash applied in the experiments had a higher content of macroelements and microelements. The content of heavy metals in the studied waste did not exceed the limits that condition their use in agriculture and reclamation. Application of only the bottom ash decreased the amount of yield in relation to the control, whereas application of a mixture of biomass ash and sewage sludge (treatment MB I) at a dose of 50 Mg DM · ha-1 increased the plant mixture yield as compared with the control. Application of only the municipal sewage sludge also decreased the plant mixture yield. The waste applied to soil increased the content of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in the plant mixture. The level of heavy metal content in the plant mixture did not exclude this biomass from being used for fodder or reclamation purposes, and other (e.g. compost, biomass combustion). The combustion waste reduced the heavy metal uptake by the plant mixture. It was established that the highest dose of ash-sediment mixtures increased the heavy metal uptake by the plant mixture. The plant biomass extracted Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb to the greatest extent from municipal sewage sludge, and Cu and Zn – from hard coal. It was established that, from the analyzed heavy metals, Ni was extracted in the highest amount (18.7%), followed by Zn (17.7%), Cd (13.2%), Cr (9.4%), Cu (9.1%) and Pb – in the smallest amount (6.2%). The addition of combustion waste, sewage sludge and their mixtures improved soil chemical properties. The mixtures increased the content of base cations, and the content of organic carbon, total nitrogen and available P, K, and Mg in soil. Waste applied to the soil also increased the content of heavy metals in the soil. Introduction of waste did not cause exceedance of acceptable heavy metal content in cultivable and post-industrial soils. Heterogeneity of wastes and their non-homogeneity suggest that each batch intended to be used in environmental management should be bioassayed and undergo chemical tests.
Diploma typeDoctor of Philosophy
Author Agnieszka Kowalewska (FoAaE / DoAaECh)
Agnieszka Kowalewska,,
- Department of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry
Title in EnglishSuitability mixture of biomass ash and municipal sewage sludge for reclamation
Languagepl polski
Certifying UnitFaculty of Agriculture and Economics (FoAaE)
Disciplineagronomia / obszar nauk rolniczych, leśnych i weterynaryjnych (agriculture)
Scientific discipline (2.0)4.2 agriculture and horticulture
Start date01-10-2014
Defense Date30-05-2018
End date30-05-2018
Supervisor Jacek Antonkiewicz (FoAaE / DoAaECh)
Jacek Antonkiewicz,,
- Department of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry

Pages73
Keywords in Englishcoal ash, biomass ash, municipal sewage sludge, heavy metals, yielding content, uptake, balance
Abstract in EnglishThe suitability of mineral and organic waste for reclamation of post-industrial areas, waste landfills, slag heaps, dumping grounds appears to be substantiated on account of the content of macroelements and microelements. Application of bottom ash and municipal sewage sludge leads to improvement of soil properties and provides plants with indispensable nutrients. The aim of the conducted research was to determine the effect of botttom ash, sewage sludge and their mixtures on yielding and chemical composition of a plant mixture and on the basic physicochemical properties of soil. The research was conducted under laboratory conditions and under conditions of a field experiment, and then the fertilizing value of these wastes in the environmental aspect was determined. It was established that, as compared with the municipal sewage sludge, the biomass ash applied in the experiments had a higher content of macroelements and microelements. The content of heavy metals in the studied waste did not exceed the limits that condition their use in agriculture and reclamation. Application of only the bottom ash decreased the amount of yield in relation to the control, whereas application of a mixture of biomass ash and sewage sludge (treatment MB I) at a dose of 50 Mg DM · ha-1 increased the plant mixture yield as compared with the control. Application of only the municipal sewage sludge also decreased the plant mixture yield. The waste applied to soil increased the content of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in the plant mixture. The level of heavy metal content in the plant mixture did not exclude this biomass from being used for fodder or reclamation purposes, and other (e.g. compost, biomass combustion). The combustion waste reduced the heavy metal uptake by the plant mixture. It was established that the highest dose of ash-sediment mixtures increased the heavy metal uptake by the plant mixture. The plant biomass extracted Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb to the greatest extent from municipal sewage sludge, and Cu and Zn – from hard coal. It was established that, from the analyzed heavy metals, Ni was extracted in the highest amount (18.7%), followed by Zn (17.7%), Cd (13.2%), Cr (9.4%), Cu (9.1%) and Pb – in the smallest amount (6.2%). The addition of combustion waste, sewage sludge and their mixtures improved soil chemical properties. The mixtures increased the content of base cations, and the content of organic carbon, total nitrogen and available P, K, and Mg in soil. Waste applied to the soil also increased the content of heavy metals in the soil. Introduction of waste did not cause exceedance of acceptable heavy metal content in cultivable and post-industrial soils. Heterogeneity of wastes and their non-homogeneity suggest that each batch intended to be used in environmental management should be bioassayed and undergo chemical tests.

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